Seed harvesting is influenced by associational effects in mixed seed neighbourhoods, not just by seed density
Article first published online: 9 APR 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Functional Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society
Special Issue: Plant–Microbe–Insect Interactions
Volume 27, Issue 3, pages 775–785, June 2013
How to Cite
Ostoja, S. M., Schupp, E. W., Durham, S., Klinger, R. (2013), Seed harvesting is influenced by associational effects in mixed seed neighbourhoods, not just by seed density. Functional Ecology, 27: 775–785. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12091
- Issue published online: 23 MAY 2013
- Article first published online: 9 APR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 18 JUN 2012
- Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
- U.S. Department of Agriculture. Grant Number: 2001-52103-11322
- Utah Agricultural Experiment Station
- Utah State University
- USU Ecology Center research fellowship
- USU School of Graduate Studies dissertation fellowship
- Associational Resistance;
- associational susceptibility;
- context dependence;
- density dependence;
- seed mixtures
- Rodents frequently forage in a density-dependent manner, increasing harvesting in patches with greater seed densities. Although seldom considered, seed harvesting may also depend on the species identities of other individuals in the seed neighbourhood. When the seed harvest of a focal species increases in association with another seed species, the focal species suffers from Associational Susceptibility. In contrast, if seeds of the focal species are harvested less when in association with a second species, the focal species benefits from Associational Resistance.
- To evaluate density dependence and associational effects among seeds in mixtures, we conducted seed removal experiments using a completely additive design patterned after a two-species competition experiment using seeds of either Achnatherum hymenoides (Indian ricegrass), Leymus cinereus (basin wildrye) or Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass), all native perennial grasses, combined with seeds of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a non-native annual grass. The experiment involved placing five fixed quantities of the native seeds mixed with five fixed quantities of B. tectorum seeds in a factorial design, resulting in 35 seed mixture combinations. The seed-eating rodent community at our study sites, in order of abundance, is composed of Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse), Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) and Perognathus parvus (Great Basin pocket mouse).
- Native seed harvesting was density dependent, with a greater proportion of seeds being harvested as density increased. In the mixed density model, the presence of B. tectorum did not affect harvest of any of the native species' seeds when analysed individually. However, when all three native species were analysed together, increasing quantities of B. tectorum resulted in reduced harvest of native seeds, demonstrating weak but significant Associational Resistance. In contrast, harvest of B. tectorum seeds increased when in combination with any of the native seed species individually, indicating relatively strong Associational Susceptibility.
- These results demonstrate that seed harvest is determined not just by seed density, but also by the local seed neighbourhood and suggest that associational effects between native seeds and B. tectorum can occur in field conditions. The ecological implications of seed selection and associational effects on plant populations in natural and managed systems are also discussed.