Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster
Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Functional Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Volume 28, Issue 4, pages 886–894, August 2014
How to Cite
Cooper, B. S., Hammad, L. A., Montooth, K. L. (2014), Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Functional Ecology, 28: 886–894. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12264
- Issue published online: 12 JUL 2014
- Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 FEB 2014 11:25PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 27 NOV 2013
- Indiana University Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Sciences Training. Grant Number: T32-GM007757
- National Institutes of Health
- American Society of Naturalists
- National Science Foundation CAREER award IOS-1149178
- Indiana University
- Eli Lilly Endowment
- cellular membranes;
- Drosophila melanogaster ;
- homeoviscous adaptation;
- phenotypic plasticity;
- thermal adaptation
- Changes in temperature disrupt the fluidity of cellular membranes, which can negatively impact membrane integrity and cellular processes. Many ectotherms, including Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), adjust the glycerophospholipid composition of their membranes to restore optimal fluidity when temperatures change, a type of trait plasticity termed homeoviscous adaptation.
- Existing data suggest that plasticity in the relative abundances of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) underlies cellular adaptation to temporal variability in the thermal environment. For example, laboratory populations of D. melanogaster evolved in the presence of temporally variable temperatures have greater developmental plasticity of the ratio of PE to PC (PE/PC) and greater fecundity than do populations evolved at constant temperatures.
- Here, we extend this work to natural populations of D. melanogaster by evaluating thermal plasticity of glycerophospholipid composition at different life stages, in genotypes isolated from Vermont, Indiana and North Carolina, USA. We also quantify the covariance between developmental and adult (reversible) plasticity, and between adult responses of the membrane to cool and warm thermal shifts.
- As predicted by physiological models of homeoviscous adaptation, flies from all populations decrease PE/PC and the degree of lipid unsaturation in response to warm temperatures. Furthermore, these populations have diverged in their degree of membrane plasticity. Flies from the most variable thermal environment (Vermont, USA) decrease PE/PC to a greater extent than do other populations when developed at a warm temperature, a pattern that matches our previous observation in laboratory-evolved populations. We also find that developmental plasticity and adult plasticity of PE/PC covary across genotypes, but that adult responses to cool and warm thermal shifts do not.
- When combined with our previous observations of laboratory-evolved populations, our findings implicate developmental plasticity of PE/PC as a mechanism of thermal adaptation in temporally variable environments. While little is known about the genetic bases of plastic responses to temperature, our observations suggest that both environmentally sensitive and environmentally specific alleles contribute to thermal adaptation of membranes and that costs of plasticity may arise when the adult environment differs from that experienced during development.