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Keywords:

  • Time-shifts;
  • Geomechanics;
  • Inversion;
  • Time-lapse seismics

ABSTRACT

Advances in seismics acquisition and processing and the widespread use of 4D seismics have made available reliable production-induced subsurface deformation data in the form of overburden time-shifts. Inversion of these data is now beginning to be used as an aid to the monitoring of a reservoir's effective stress. Past solutions to this inversion problem have relied upon analytic calculations for an unrealistically simplified subsurface, which can lead to uncertainties. To enhance the accuracy of this approach, a method based on transfer functions is proposed in which the function itself is calibrated using numerically generated overburden strain deformation calculated for a small select group of reference sources. This technique proves to be a good compromise between the faster but more accurate history match of the overburden strain using a geomechanical simulator and the slower, less accurate analytic method. Synthetic tests using a coupled geomechanical and fluid flow simulator for the South Arne field confirm the efficacy of the method. Application to measured time-shifts from observed 4D seismics indicates compartmentalization in the Tor reservoir, more heterogeneity than is currently considered in the simulation model and moderate connectivity with the overlying Ekofisk formation.