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Table S1. Analysis using male-age residuals: final linear mixed models testing for age effects across all ages (i.e., Step-1 Analysis) for laying date, clutch size, and number of recruits are reported by the estimated effects of each term (Est.) with associated standard errors and P-values. ♂ Age-resid represents the residuals from a linear regression of male age on female age (r2 = 0·74, < 0·001). Non-significant fixed effects (ns) were deleted from the final model. Linear male and female age terms were always retained; ♂ Age-resid² and ♀ Age² are the quadratic terms. ALR is the age at last reproduction. Resident Status was coded 0 (resident) or 1 (immigrant), thus showing the relative effect of being an immigrant. Pen was included as a factor only for the number of recruits (see text). All procedures are identical to Tables 1 & 2.

Table S2. Analysis using male-age residuals: final linear mixed models testing for age effects for breeding attempts where both male and female age are >11 years (i.e., Step-2 Analysis) for laying date, clutch size, and number of recruits. All abbreviations and procedures are otherwise identical to Tables 1, 2 and S1.

Table S3. Analysis excluding covariates: final linear mixed models testing for age effects across all ages (i.e., Step-1 Analysis) for clutch size and number of recruits are reported by the estimated effects of each term (Est.) with associated standard errors and P-values. Non-significant fixed effects (ns) were deleted from the final model. Linear male and female age terms were always retained; Age² is the quadratic term. ALR is the age at last reproduction. Resident Status was coded 0 (resident) or 1 (immigrant), thus showing the relative effect of being an immigrant. Pen was included as a factor only for the number of recruits (see text). All procedures are identical to Tables 1 & 2.

Table S4. Analysis excluding covariates: final linear mixed models testing for age effects for breeding attempts where both male and female age are >11 years (i.e., Step-2 Analysis) for clutch size and number of recruits. All abbreviations and procedures are otherwise identical to Tables 1, 2 and S1.

Table S5. Analysis using male-age residuals and excluding covariates: final linear mixed models testing for age effects across all ages (i.e., Step-1 Analysis) for clutch size and number of recruits are reported by the estimated effects of each term (Est.) with associated standard errors and P-values. ♂ Age-resid represents the residuals from a linear regression of male age on female age (r2 = 0·74, < 0·001). Age-resid² and Age² are quadratic terms. Linear male and female age terms were always retained; other non-significant fixed effects (ns) were deleted from the final model. ALR is the age at last reproduction. Resident Status was coded 0 (resident) or 1 (immigrant), thus showing the relative effect of being an immigrant. Pen was included as a factor only for the number of recruits (see text). P-values for random effects are from a Wald's Z-test

Table S6. Analysis using male-age residuals and excluding covariates: final linear mixed models testing for age effects for breeding attempts where both male and female age are inline image11 years (i.e., Step-2 Analysis) for clutch size and number of recruits. All abbreviations and procedures are otherwise identical to Table 1 (i.e., Step-1 Analysis).

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