SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Arnemo, J.M., Evans, A., Fahlman, Å., Ahlqvist, P., Andrén, H., Brunberg, S., Liberg, O., Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, J., Persson, J., Sand, H., Segerström, P., Sköld, K., Strømseth, T.H., Støen, O.-G., Swenson, J.E. & Wabakken, P. (2011) Biomedical Protocols for Free-Ranging Brown Bears, Wolves, Wolverines and Lynx. Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway.
  • Bellemain, E., Swenson, J.E. & Taberlet, P. (2006) Mating strategies in relation to sexually selected infanticide in a non-social carnivore: the brown bear. Ethology, 112, 238246.
  • Ben-David, M., Titus, K. & Beier, L. (2004) Consumption of salmon by Alaskan brown bears: a trade-off between nutritional requirements and the risk of infanticide? Oecologia, 138, 465474.
  • Berger, J. (2007) Fear, human shields and the redistribution of prey and predators in protected areas. Biology Letters, 3, 620623.
  • Bischof, R., Swenson, J.E., Yoccoz, N.G., Mysterud, A. & Gimenez, O. (2009) The magnitude and selectivity of natural and multiple anthropogenic mortality causes in hunted brown bears. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 656665.
  • Boyce, M.S., Vernier, P.R., Nielsen, S.E. & Schmiegelow, F.K.A. (2002) Evaluating resource selection functions. Ecological Modelling, 157, 281300.
  • Brooks, S.P. & Gelman, A. (1998) General methods for monitoring convergence of iterative simulations. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 7, 434455.
  • Brown, J.S. & Kotler, B.P. (2004) Hazardous duty pay and the foraging cost of predation. Ecology Letters, 7, 9991014.
  • Brown, J.S., Kotler, B.P. & Bouskila, A. (2001) Ecology of fear: foraging games between predators and prey with pulsed resources. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 38, 7187.
  • Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (2002) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Albon, S.D. & Guinness, F.E. (1989) Fitness costs of gestation and lactation in wild mammals. Nature, 337, 260262.
  • Craighead, J.J., Sumner, J.S. & Mitchell, J.A.. (1995) The Grizzly Bears of Yellowstone: Their Ecology in the Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1959 - 1992. Island Press, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
  • Creel, S. & Christianson, D. (2008) Relationships between direct predation and risk effects. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 194201.
  • Creel, S., Winnie, J. Jr, Maxwell, B., Hamlin, K. & Creel, M. (2005) Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves. Ecology, 86, 33873397.
  • Dahle, B. & Swenson, J.E. (2003) Seasonal range size in relation to reproductive strategies in brown bears Ursus arctos. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 660667.
  • Deutsch, C.J., Haley, M.P. & Le Boeuf, B.J. (1990) Reproductive effort of male northern elephant seals: estimates from mass loss. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68, 25802593.
  • Ebensperger, L.A. (1998) Strategies and counterstrategies to infanticide in mammals. Biological Reviews, 73, 321346.
  • Ebensperger, L.A. & Blumstein, D.T.. (2007) Nonparental infanticide. Rodent Societies: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective (eds.J.O. Wolff & P.W. Sherman), pp. 267279. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Farley, S.D. & Robbins, C.T. (1995) Lactation, hibernation, and mass dynamics of American black bears and grizzly bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73, 22162222.
  • Garshelis, D.L.. (2009) Family ursidae, bears. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1. Carnivores, pp. 448497. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Hadfield, J.D. (2010) MCMC methods for multi-response generalized linear mixed models: the MCMCglmm R Package. Journal of Statistical Software, 2010, 122.
  • Hessing, P. & Aumiller, L. (1994) Observations of conspecific predation by brown bear, Ursus arctos, in Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 108, 332336.
  • Hiemstra, P.H., Pebesma, E.J., Twenhofel, C.J.W. & Heuvelink, G.B.M. (2009) Real-time automatic interpolation of ambient gamma dose rates from the Dutch radioactivity monitoring network. Computers & Geosciences, 35, 17111721.
  • Hrdy, S.B. (1979) Infanticide among animals: a review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethology and Sociobiology, 1, 1340.
  • Hrdy, S.B. & Hausfater, G.. (1984) Comparative and evolutionary perspectives on infanticide: introduction and overview. Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives (eds.G. Hausfater & S.B. Hrdy), pp. xiiixxxv. Aldine Transactions, London, UK.
  • Leica Geosystems (2010) Erdas Imagine. http://gis.leica-geosystems.com.A, [accessed 1 September 2011]
  • Libal, N.S., Belant, J.L., Leopold, B.D., Wang, G. & Owen, P.A. (2011) Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection. PLoS ONE, 6, e24133.
  • Lima, S.L. & Bednekoff, P.A. (1998) Temporal variation in danger drives antipredator behavior: the predation risk allocation hypothesis. The American Naturalist, 153, 649659.
  • Loseto, L.L., Richard, P., Stern, G.A., Orr, J. & Ferguson, S.H. (2006) Segregation of Beaufort sea beluga whales during the open-water season. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84, 17431751.
  • Main, M.B. (2008) Reconciling competing ecological explanations for sexual segregation in ungulates. Ecology, 89, 693704.
  • Manly, B., McDonald, L., Thomas, D.L., McDonald, T.L. & Erickson, W.P. (2002) Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
  • Mårell, A. & Edenius, L. (2006) Spatial heterogeneity and hierarchical feeding habitat selection by reindeer. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 38, 413420.
  • Martin, J., Basille, M., Van Moorter, B., Kindberg, J., Allainé, D. & Swenson, J.E. (2010) Coping with human disturbance: spatial and temporal tactics of the brown bear (Ursus arctos). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 88, 875883.
  • Martin, J., van Moorter, B., Revilla, E., Blanchard, P., Dray, S., Quenette, P.-Y., Allainé, D. & Swenson, J.E.. (2013) Reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors determines individual movements. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 290300.
  • Mattson, D.J. & Reinhart, D.P. (1995) Influences of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) on behaviour and reproduction of Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), 1975–1989. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73, 20722079.
  • McLellan, B.N.. (1994) Density-dependent population regulation in brown bears. Density Dependent Population Regulation of Black, Brown Abd Polar Bears. International Conference on Bear Research and Management Monograph Series No. 3 (ed.M. Taylor), pp. 1524. International Association for Bear Research and Management,
  • McLellan, B.N. (2005) Sexually selected infanticide in grizzly bears: the effects of hunting on cub survival. Ursus, 16, 141156.
  • McLellan, B.N. & Shackleton, D.M. (1988) Grizzly bears and resource-extraction industries: effects of roads on behaviour, habitat use and demography. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25, 451460.
  • Miller, S.D. (1990) Impact of increased bear hunting on survivorship of young bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 18, 462467.
  • Miller, S.D., Sellers, R.A. & Keay, J.A. (2003) Effects of hunting on brown bear cub survival and litter size in Alaska. Ursus, 14, 130152.
  • Moe, T.F., Kindberg, J., Jansson, I. & Swenson, J.E. (2007) Importance of diel behaviour when studying habitat selection: examples from female Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 85, 518525.
  • Muhly, T.B., Semeniuk, C., Massolo, A., Hickman, L. & Musiani, M. (2011) Human activity helps prey win the predator-prey space race. PLoS ONE, 6, e17050.
  • Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R. & Stenseth, N.C. (2004) Patterns of reproductive effort in male ungulates. Journal of Zoology, 264, 209215.
  • Mysterud, A., Solberg, E.J. & Yoccoz, N.G. (2005) Ageing and reproductive effort in male moose under variable levels of intrasexual competition. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 742754.
  • Nevin, O.T. & Gilbert, B.K. (2005a) Measuring the cost of risk avoidance in brown bears: further evidence of positive impacts of ecotourism. Biological Conservation, 123, 453460.
  • Nevin, O.T. & Gilbert, B.K. (2005b) Perceived risk, displacement and refuging in brown bears: positive impacts of ecotourism? Biological Conservation, 121, 611622.
  • Ordiz, A., Støen, O.-G., Delibes, M. & Swenson, J. (2011) Predators or prey? Spatio-temporal discrimination of human-derived risk by brown bears. Oecologia, 166, 5967.
  • Partridge, L. & Harvey, P.H. (1988) The ecological context of life history evolution. Science, 241, 14491455.
  • Pearson, M.A. (1975) The Northern Interior Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos L. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Pettorelli, N., Vik, J.O., Mysterud, A., Gaillard, J.M., Tucker, C.J. & Stenseth, N.C. (2005) Using the satellite-derived NDVI to assess ecological responses to environmental change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20, 503510.
  • Plummer, M., Best, N., Cowles, K. & Vines, K.. (2010) coda: Output analysis and diagnostics for MCMC. R package version 0.14-2. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=coda
  • Pusey, A.E. & Packer, C.. (1994) Infanticide in lions: consequences and counterstrategies. Infanticide & Parental Care (eds S. Parmigiani & F.S. Vom Saal), pp. 277299. Harwood Academic, London, UK.
  • R Development Core Team (2009) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing,Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.
  • Rode, K.D., Farley, S.D. & Robbins, C.T. (2006) Sexual dimorphism, reproductive strategy and human activities determine resource use by brown bears. Ecology, 87, 26362646.
  • Ruckstuhl, K.E. (2007) Sexual segregation in vertebrates: proximate and ultimate causes. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 47, 245257.
  • Sæther, B.-E., Engen, S., Swenson, J.E., Bakke, Ø. & Sandegren, F. (1998) Assessing the viability of Scandinavian brown bear, Ursus arctos, populations: the effects of uncertain parameter estimates. Oikos, 83, 403416.
  • van Schaik, C.C.. (2000) Vulnerability to infanticide by males: patterns among mammals. Infanticide by Males and its Implications (eds C.C. van Schaik & C.H. Janson), pp. 6171. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • van Schaik, C.C. & Janson, C.H. (2000) Infanticide by Males and Its Implications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Singh, N.J., Bonenfant, C., Yoccoz, N.G. & Côté, S.D. (2010) Sexual segregation in Eurasian wild sheep. Behavioral Ecology, 21, 410418.
  • Stearns, S.C. (1989) Trade-offs in life-history evolution. Functional Ecology, 3, 259268.
  • Steyaert, S.M.J.G.. (2012) The Mating System of the Brown Bear in Relation to the Sexually Selected Infanticide Theory. PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway.
  • Steyaert, S.M.J.G., Endrestøl, A., Hackländer, K., Swenson, J.E. & Zedrosser, A. (2012a) The mating system of the brown bear Ursus arctos. Mammal Review, 42, 1234.
  • Steyaert, S.M.J.G., Støen, O.-G., Elfström, M., Karlsson, J., Lammeren, R.V., Bokdam, J., Zedrosser, A., Brunberg, S. & Swenson, J.E. (2012b) Resource selection by sympatric free-ranging dairy cattle and brown bears Ursus arctos. Wildlife Biology, 17, 389403.
  • Swenson, J.E. (1999) Does hunting affect the behavior of brown bears in Eurasia? Ursus, 11, 157162.
  • Swenson, J.E.. (2003) Implications of sexually selected infanticide for the hunting of large carnivores. Animal Behavior and Wildlife Conservation (eds M. Festa-Bianchet & M. Apollonio), pp. 171189. Island press, Washington DC, USA.
  • Swenson, J.E., Sandegren, F., Soderberg, A., Bjärvall, A., Franzén, R. & Wabakken, P. (1997) Infanticide caused by hunting of male bears. Nature, 386, 450451.
  • Swenson, J.E., Sandegren, F., Brunberg, S. & Segerstrøm, P. (2001) Factors associated with loss of brown bear cubs in Sweden. Ursus, 12, 6980.
  • Swenson, J., Adamič, M., Huber, D. & Stokke, S. (2007) Brown bear body mass and growth in northern and southern Europe. Oecologia, 153, 3747.
  • Wielgus, R.B. & Bunnell, F.L. (1994) Sexual segregation and female grizzly bear avoidance of males. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 58, 405413.
  • Wielgus, R.B. & Bunnell, F.L. (1995) Tests of hypotheses for sexual segregation in grizzly bears. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 59, 552560.
  • Wielgus, R.B. & Bunnell, F.L. (2000) Possible negative effects of adult male mortality on female grizzly bear reproduction. Biological Conservation, 93, 145154.
  • Wielgus, R.B., Sarrazin, F., Ferriere, R. & Clobert, J. (2001) Estimating effects of adult male mortality on grizzly bear population growth and persistence using matrix models. Biological Conservation, 98, 293303.
  • Wolff, J.O. & Macdonald, D.W. (2004) Promiscuous females protect their offspring. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 127134.
  • Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A. (2005) People and Wildlife: Conflict or Co-existence?. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Zedrosser, A., Dahle, B., Støen, O.-G. & Swenson, J. (2009) The effects of primiparity on reproductive performance in the brown bear. Oecologia, 160, 847854.