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Appendix S1. Detailed description of seed rain data, the use and validation of cone indices, and the relationship between white spruce and subalpine fir seed production.

Appendix S2. Further description of seeds used in food supplementation experiment

Appendix S3. Detailed description of estimation procedures and statistical analyses for deer mouse population, body mass, and breeding parameters.

Appendix S4. Supplemental results, figures, and tables with detailed descriptions of population, breeding, and body mass dynamics of deer mice in relation to white spruce seed supplementation and natural variation in cone production by white spruce and subalpine fir trees.

Appendix S5. Supplemental discussion on additional results of the seed supplementation experiment, differences in seed-rodent interactions between temperate deciduous and northern coniferous forests, and additional effects of conifer mast seeding on deer mouse demography.

Table S1. Parameters used to calculate summer and winter population growth (intrinsic rate of increase week-1) for the full, overwintered (OW), and young-of-the-year (YY) populations.

Table S2. Evaluation of the parsimony of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models examining differences in the summer survival of overwintered deer mice between the control and treatment grids for 2004-2011.

Table S3. Evaluation of the parsimony of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models examining the relationship between summer survival of overwintered deer mice on the control grid and the previous fall's white spruce (St-1), subalpine fir (Ft-1), and total (Tt-1) cone indices.

Table S4. Results of linear regression models testing for the effects of the previous fall's (t-1) white spruce, subalpine fir, and total cone production on various deer mouse body mass and breeding parameters.

Table S5. Robust Design Model results for deer mouse abundance estimation for the control grid.

Table S6. Robust Design Model results for deer mouse abundance estimation for the treatment grid.

Table S7. Evaluation of the parsimony of several alternate linear models examining the annual variation in average spring deer mouse population density (N) on the control grid relative to the previous fall's average population density (Nt-1) and white spruce (St-1), subalpine fir (Ft-1), and total (Tt-1) cone indices.

Table S8. Evaluation of the parsimony of several alternate linear models examining the annual variation in average summer deer mouse population density (N) on the control grid relative to the preceding spring's average population density (Nt-1) and previous fall's white spruce (St-1), subalpine fir (Ft-1), and total (Tt-1) cone indices.

Table S9. Evaluation of the parsimony of several alternate linear models examining the annual variation in average fall deer mouse population density (N) on the control grid relative to the preceding spring's average population density (Nt-1) and previous fall's white spruce (St-1), subalpine fir (Ft-1), and total (Tt-1) cone indices.

Table S10. Evaluation of the parsimony of several alternate linear models examining the annual variation in population growth (r) on the control grid relative to the preceding population density (Nt-1) and previous fall's white spruce (St-1), subalpine fir (Ft-1), and total (Tt-1) cone indices.

Table S11. Evaluation of the parsimony of several alternate linear models examining the annual variation in overwinter deer mouse survival (Φ) on the control grid relative to the previous fall's young-of-the-year population density (Nt-1) and white spruce (St-1), subalpine fir (Ft-1), and total (Tt-1) cone indices.

Fig. S1. White spruce and subalpine fir cone production in the Kananaskis Valley, Alberta from 2001-2011.

Fig. S2. White spruce and subalpine fir seed rain densities in the Kananaskis Valley, Alberta from 2006-2010.

Fig. S3. Summer deer mouse population growth (intrinsic rate of increase week-1) of (a) the full population, (b) overwintered adults only, and (c) young-of-the-year only, on the control and treatment grids.

Fig. S4. Ratio of the average summer and fall young-of-the-year population densities of deer mice on the treatment grid to those on the control grid.

Fig. S5. (a) Overwintered (OW) and (b) young-of-the-year (YY) deer mouse population densities on the control (open circle/dashed line) and treatment (closed circle/solid line) grids.

Fig. S6. Winter deer mouse population growth (intrinsic rate of increase week-1) on the control and treatment grids.

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