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Appendix S1. Supplementary methods.

Table S1. Means ± standard errors, minimum and maximum values of each variable across the 10 strips.

Table S2. Trap-nesting host Hymenoptera in the 10 experimental wildflower strips.

Table S3. Higher trophic level (“enemy”) species in the 10 experimental wildflower strips.

Table S4. Correlations among variables.

Fig. S1. Arrangement of the 14 trap-nests (red circles) within subplots in the experimental wildflower strips.

Fig. S2. Aerial photo of the study area.

Fig. S3. Trap nests for solitary bees and wasps.

Fig. S4. Relationship between the three sets of environmental descriptors and the trap-nest community in canonical correspondence analyses.

Fig. S5. Potential explanations for the relationship between forest cover and vulnerability.

Fig. S6. Potential explanations for the relationship between forest cover and generality/vulnerability: the average interaction evenness of all hosts and enemies in each strip as a function of forest cover.

Fig. S7. Potential explanations for the relationship between forest cover and generality.

Fig. S8. Potential explanations for the relationship between forest cover and interaction diversity: a) the total interaction evenness for each food web as a function of forest cover, and b) the total number of interactions of each food web as a function of forest cover.

Fig. S9. A potential explanation for the relationship between plant species richness and compartmentalisation: the proportion of “specialist” hosts with only one enemy and of specialist enemies with only one host both increase significantly with plant species richness.

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