Ectoparasitism and stress hormones: strategy of host exploitation, common host–parasite history and energetics matter
Article first published online: 20 MAY 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society
Journal of Animal Ecology
Volume 83, Issue 5, pages 1113–1123, September 2014
How to Cite
St. Juliana, J. R., Khokhlova, I. S., Wielebnowski, N., Kotler, B. P., Krasnov, B. R. (2014), Ectoparasitism and stress hormones: strategy of host exploitation, common host–parasite history and energetics matter. Journal of Animal Ecology, 83: 1113–1123. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12217
- Issue published online: 20 AUG 2014
- Article first published online: 20 MAY 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 24 MAR 2014 11:08AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 7 JUL 2013
- Chicago Zoological Society
- Chicago Board of Trade Endangered Species Fund
- Israel Science Foundation. Grant Numbers: 26/12, 804/09
- faecal glucocorticoid metabolites;
- principal host;
- Parasites are thought to have numerous negative effects on their hosts. These negative effects may be associated with stress in a host.
- We evaluated the effects of four species of flea ectoparasites (Parapulex chephrenis, Synosternus cleopatrae, Xenopsylla conformis and Xenopsylla ramesis) on non-specific responses of eight species of rodents (Meriones crassus, Gerbillus dasyurus, Gerbillus andersoni, Gerbillus pyramidum, Gerbillus nanus, Acomys cahirinus, Acomys russatus and Mesocricetus auratus) and measured faecal glucocorticoid metabolites concentrations (FGMC) produced by the hosts.
- We found no effect of body mass of an individual rodent on FGMCs. Parasitism by fleas with a ‘stay on the host body’ exploitation strategy was associated with higher host FGMCs than parasitism by fleas that spent most of their life ‘off-host’. FGMCs among rodents infested by the same flea species were correlated positively with the phylogenetic distance of a given rodent from the principal host of this flea; changes in FGMCs were lower in the host species more closely related to the flea's principal host. Changes in FMGCs of a host while parasitized were correlated with a host's change in body mass, where hosts that lost more body mass had higher FGMCs.
- Our results suggest that ectoparasitism can be stressful to their hosts. However, the occurrence of parasite-induced stress seems to depend on the identity of both host and parasite species and the evolutionary history of a host–parasite association. To our knowledge, this is the first multispecies study to evaluate the effect of ectoparasites on glucocorticoid hormones in small mammals.