Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus)
Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society
Journal of Animal Ecology
Volume 83, Issue 6, pages 1344–1356, November 2014
How to Cite
Cubaynes, S., MacNulty, D. R., Stahler, D. R., Quimby, K. A., Smith, D. W., Coulson, T. (2014), Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus). Journal of Animal Ecology, 83: 1344–1356. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12238
- Issue published online: 24 OCT 2014
- Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 21 APR 2014 06:31AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 APR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 19 DEC 2013
- National Science Foundation . Grant Numbers: DEB-0613730, DEB-1245373
- Yellowstone National Park
- Yellowstone Park Foundation
- Wellcome grant
Fig. S1. Wolf population size in April (a), and in December (b) in the Northern Range (NR) and the interior range (INT), and total population size in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) from 1998 to 2009.
Fig. S2. Number of wolf-caused mortalities as a function of wolf density in April, expressed in number of wolves per 1000 km2 (a), and as a function of the number of intraspecific aggressive interactions (b) in the NR between 1995 and 2012.
Appendix S1. Annual changes in wolf and elk populations and index of winter severity.
Appendix S2. Cause-specific mortality data.
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