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Fig. S1. Wolf population size in April (a), and in December (b) in the Northern Range (NR) and the interior range (INT), and total population size in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) from 1998 to 2009.

Fig. S2. Number of wolf-caused mortalities as a function of wolf density in April, expressed in number of wolves per 1000 km2 (a), and as a function of the number of intraspecific aggressive interactions (b) in the NR between 1995 and 2012.

Appendix S1. Annual changes in wolf and elk populations and index of winter severity.

Appendix S2. Cause-specific mortality data.

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