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Table S1. Parameter estimates for effects of age (fitted as a smooth function), sex (males as the reference group) and recruitment age (RA, with RA3 as the reference group) on survival probability, breeding probability and annual reproductive success (i.e. the number of fledglings produced) of common terns, based on the models with the lowest AIC in Table 2.

Table S2. Model comparison to study effects of age (fitted as a smooth function), recruitment age (RA) and their interaction on annual reproductive success (i.e. the number of fledglings produced) in each sex of the common tern, separately.

Table S3. Model comparison to study the effect of residual partner age (page, calculated as the difference between the age of the focal bird and that of its partner, fitted as a smooth function) on annual reproductive success (i.e. the number of fledglings produced) in 979 pairs of common terns.

Table S4. Model comparison to study terminal effects on annual reproductive success (i.e. the number of fledglings produced) in the common tern, by adding a variable last observation (LO) to the model with the lowest AIC in Table 2.

Fig. S1. Bubble plot showing the extent of age-assortative mating in the common tern, with bubbles representing the sample size of each male-female age combination for 458 unique pairs from which one annual observation was randomly selected.

Fig. S2. Average (±SE) age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive success (i.e. the number of fledglings produced) in the common tern.

Fig. S3. Age-specific annual reproductive success (i.e. the number of fledglings produced; solid line) with 95% confidence limits (dashed lines) obtained by plotting the smooth component of age from a GAMM with age and recruitment age as fixed effects, and identity and year as random effects, based on the data excluding cohorts 1999–2006.

Fig. S4. Age- and year-specific standardized survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive success (i.e. the number of fledglings produced; solid lines) with 95% confidence limits (dashed lines) obtained by plotting the smooth component of age from the GAMMs in which year was added as a fixed, rather than a random, effect (in the form of a smooth function).

Fig. S5. Age-specific reproductive values for each sex-RA group (solid lines) with one standard error (dashed lines) as derived by 10 000 posterior simulations.

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