SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alloway, B.J. (1995) Heavy Metals in Soils. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Annabi, M., Houot, S., Francou, C., Poitrenaud, M. & Le Bissonnais, Y. (2007) Soil aggregate stability improvement with urban composts of different maturity levels. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 413423.
  • Bakker, M.M., Govers, G. & Rounsevell, M.D.A. (2004) The crop productivity–erosion relationship: an analysis based on experimental work. Catena, 57, 5576.
  • Ball, B.C., Scott, A. & Parker, J.P. (1999) Field N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes in relation to tillage, compaction and soil quality in Scotland. Soil and Tillage Research, 53, 2939.
  • Bardgett, R.D., Campbell, C.D., Emmett, B.A., Jenkins, A. & Whitmore, A.P. (2011) Supporting services. UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report, pp. 499533. UK National Ecosystem Assessment, UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • Barnes, P., Costanza, R., Hawken, P., Orr, D., Ostrom, E., Umaña, A. & Young, O. (2008) Creating an earth atmospheric trust. Science, 319, 724.
  • Bateman, I.J., Mace, G.M., Fezzi, C., Atkinson, G. & Turner, K. (2011) Economic analysis for ecosystem service assessments. Environmental & Resource Economics, 48, 177218.
  • Betts, R.A. (2000) Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo. Nature, 408, 187190.
  • Boardman, J. & Evans, B. (2006) Britain. Soil Erosion in Europe (eds J. Poesen & J. Boardman), pp. 439453. Wiley, Chichester.
  • Bradley, R.I., Milne, R., Bell, J., Lilly, A., Jordan, C. & Higgins, A. (2005) A soil carbon and land use database for the United Kingdom. Soil Use and Management, 21, 363369.
  • Brown, K., Cardenas, L., MacCarthy, J., Murrells, T., Pang, Y., Passant, N., Thistlethwaite, G., Thomson, A. & Webb, N. (2012) UK greenhouse gas inventory, 1990 to 2010. Annual report for submission under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. AEA Technology. Available at: http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports.php (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Dawson, J.J.C. & Smith, P. (2007) Carbon losses from soil and its consequences for environmental management. Science of the Total Environment, 382, 165190.
  • De Vries, W., Solberg, S., Dobbertin, M.D., Sterba, H., Laubhann, D., van Oijen, M., Evans, C., Gundersen, P., Kros, H., Wamelink, G.W.W., Reinds, G.J. & Sutton, M.A. (2009) The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 18141823.
  • DECC (2011) The Carbon Plan: Delivering Our Low Carbon Future. Available at: http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/tackling-climate-change/carbon-plan/3702-the-carbon-plan-delivering-our-low-carbon-future.pdf. (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Defra (2007a) The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Available at: http://www.defra.gov.uk/publications/2011/03/28/air-quality-strategy-vol2-pb12670/ (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Defra (2007b) UK Biomass Strategy. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.
  • Defra (2009) Safeguarding Our Soils; a Strategy for England. Available at: http://defraweb/environment/land/soil/index.htm (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Defra (2010) Air Pollution: Action in a Changing Climate. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.
  • Defra (2011a) Biodiversity 2020: A Strategy for England's Wildlife and Ecosystem Services. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  • Defra (2011b) The Natural Choice: Securing the Value of Nature. Natural Environment White Paper. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Available at: http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/natural/whitepaper/ (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Dise, N.B., Ashmore, M.R., Belyazid, S., Bleeker, A., Bobbink, R., de Vries, W., Erisman, J.W., Spranger, T., Stevens, C.J. & van den Berg, L. (2011) Nitrogen as a threat to European biodiversity. The European Nitrogen Assessment (eds M. Sutton, C.M. Howard, J.W. Erisman, G. Billen, A. Bleeker, P. Grennfelt, H. van Grinsven & B. Grizzetti), pp. 463494. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Dobbie, K.E., McTaggart, I.P. & Smith, K.A. (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 104, 2689126899.
  • Dragosits, U., Theobald, M.R., Place, C.J., ApSimon, H.M. & Sutton, M.A. (2006) The potential for spatial planning at the landscape scale to mitigate the effects of atmospheric ammonia deposition. Environmental Science and Policy, 9, 626638.
  • Duretz, S., Drouet, J.L., Durand, P., Huthcings, N.J., Theobold, M.R., Salmolm-Monviola, J., Dragosits, U., Maury, O., Sutton, M.A. & Cellier, P. (2011) NitroScape: a model to integrate nitrogen transfers and transformations in rural landscapes. Environmental Pollution, 159, 31623170.
  • EAC (2010) Air Quality. House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee. Fifth Report of Session 2009-2010. HMSO, London.
  • EC (2010) Directive on National Emissions Ceilings (NEC, 2001/81/EC) http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pollutants/ceilings.htm. (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Emberson, L.D., Kitwiroon, N., Beevers, S., Buker, P., Cambridge, H. & Cinderby, S. (2012) Scorched earth: how will changes in ozone deposition caused by drought affect human health and ecosystems? Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 2784727889.
  • Erber, C., Bruneau, P. & Black, H.I.J. (2010) Change in soil biodiversity. The State of Scotland's Soil (eds K.E. Dobbie, P.M.C. Bruneau & W. Towers). Natural Scotland. Available at: www.sepa.org.uk/land/land_publications.aspx (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • European Commission (1996) Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning integrated pollution prevention and control. Official Journal L 257, 10/10/1996 P. 0026 – 0040.
  • Evans, C.D., Chapman, P.J., Clark, J.M., Monteith, D.T. & Cresser, M.S. (2006) Alternative explanations for rising dissolved organic carbon export from organic soils. Global Change Biology, 12, 20442053.
  • Farley, J. & Costanza, R. (2010) Payments for ecosystem services: from local to global. Ecological Economics, 69, 20602068.
  • Forestry Commission (2011) The UK Forestry Standard. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. Available at: http://www.forestry.gov.uk/theukforestrystandard (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Fowler, D., Pilegaard, K., Sutton, M.A., Ambus, P., Raivonen, M., Duyzer, J., Simpson, D., Fagerli, H., Fuzzi, S., Schjoerring, J.K., Granier, C., Neftel, A., Isaksen, I.S.A., Laj, P., Maione, M., Monks, P.S., Burkhardt, J., Daemmgen, U., Neirynck, J., Personne, E., Wichink-Kruit, R., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Flechard, C., Tuovinen, J.P., Coyle, M., Gerosa, G., Loubet, B., Altimir, N., Gruenhage, L., Ammann, C., Cieslik, S., Paoletti, E., Mikkelsen, T.N., Ro-Poulsen, H., Cellier, P., Cape, J.N., Horváth, L., Loreto, F., Niinemets, Ü., Palmer, P.I., Rinne, J., Misztal, P., Nemitz, E., Nilsson, D., Pryor, S., Gallagher, M.W., Vesala, T., Skiba, U., Brüggemann, N., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., Williams, J., O'Dowd, C., Facchini, M.C., de Leeuw, G., Flossman, A., Chaumerliac, N. & Erisman, J.W. (2009) Atmospheric composition change: ecosystems-atmosphere interactions. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 51935267.
  • Gauci, V., Matthew, E., Dise, N., Walter, B., Koch, D. & Granberg, C. (2004) Sulphur suppression of the wetland methane source in the 20th and 21st centuries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 1258312587.
  • Graves, A.R., Morris, J., Deeks, L.K., Rickson, J., Kibblewhite, M.G., Harris, J.A. & Farewell, T.S. (2011) The Total Cost of Soil Degradation in England and Wales. Report submitted to Defra CTE 0946. Cranfield University, UK.
  • Grieve, I.C., Davidson, D.A. & Gordon, J.E. (1995) Nature, extent and severity of soil erosion in upland Scotland. Land Degradation and Rehabilitation, 6, 4155.
  • Heckrath, G., Djurhuus, J., Quine, T.A., Van Oost, K., Govers, G. & Zhang, Y. (2005) Tillage erosion and its effect on soil properties and crop yield in Denmark. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34, 312324.
  • Historic Scotland (2011) Scottish Historic Environment Policy. December 2011. Historic Scotland, Edinburgh. Available at: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/shep-dec2011.pdf (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Holman, I.P. (2006) Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge-uncertainty, shortcomings, and the way forward? Hydrogeology Journal, 14, 637647.
  • Hutchins, M.G., Johnson, A.C., Deflandre-Vlandas, A., Comber, S., Posen, P. & Boorman, D. (2010) Which offers more scope to suppress river phytoplankton blooms: reducing nutrient pollution or riparian shading? Science of the Total Environment, 408, 50655077.
  • Janvier, C., Villeneuve, F., Alabouvette, C., Edel-Hermann, V., Mateille, T. & Steinberg, C. (2007) Soil health through soil disease suppression: which strategy from descriptors to indicators? Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39, 123.
  • Jones, M.L.M., Provins, A., Holland, M., Mills, G., Hayes, F., Emmett, B.A., Hall, J.1., Sheppard, L.J., Smith, R., Sutton, M., Hicks, K., Ashmore, M., Raffaelli, D., Haines-Young, R. & Harper-Simmonds, L. (2011) Using the Ecosystems Services Approach to Value Air Quality. (Defra Project NE0117). Draft Final Report for Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), May 2011. Available at: http://nitrogen.ceh.ac.uk/nitrogen2011/_oral_presentations/S4_8_Jones.pdf (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Joosten, H., Sirin, A., Couwenberg, J., Laine, J. & Smith, P. (2012) The role of peatlands in climate regulation. Peatland Restoration and Ecosystem Services (eds A. Bonn, T. Allott, M. Evans, H. Joosten & R. Stoneman). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (in press).
  • Kalbitz, K., Solinger, S., Park, J.H., Michalzik, B. & Matzner, E. (2000) Controls on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soils: a review. Soil Science, 165, 277304.
  • Kanakidou, M., Seinfeld, J.H., Pandis, S.N., Barnes, I., Dentener, F.J., Facchini, M.C., Van Dingenen, R., Ervens, B., Nenes, A., Nielsen, C.J, Swietlicki, E., Putaud, J.P., Balkanski, Y., Fuzzi, S., Horth, J., Moortgat, G.K., Winterhalte, R., Myhre, C.E.L., Tsigaridis, K., Vignati, E., Stephanou, E.G. & Wilson, J. (2005) Organic aerosol and global climate modelling: a review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5, 10531123.
  • Kleidon, A., Fraedrich, K. & Heimann, M. (2000) A green planet versus a desert world: estimating the maximum effect of vegetation on the land surface climate. Climatic Change, 44, 471493.
  • Kosmas, C., Gerontidis, S., Marathianou, M., Detsis, B., Zafiriou, T., Muysen, W.N., Govers, G., Quine, T.A. & Van Oost, K. (2001) The effects of tillage displaced soil on soil properties and wheat biomass. Soil and Tillage Research, 58, 3144.
  • Lal, R. (2003) Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environment International, 29, 437450.
  • Le Mer, J. & Roger, P. (2001) Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: a review. European Journal of Soil Biology, 37, 2550.
  • Loya, W.M., Pretgitzer, K.S., Karberg, N.J., King, J.S. & Giardina, C.P. (2003) Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels. Nature, 425, 705707.
  • Marshall, M.R., Francis, O.J., Frogbrook, Z.L., Jackson, B.M., McIntyre, N., Reynolds, B., Solloway, I., Wheater, H.S. & Chell, J. (2009) The impact of upland land management on flooding: results from an improved pasture hillslope. Hydrological Processes, 23, 464475.
  • McDonald, A.G., Bealey, W.J., Fowler, D., Dragosits, U., Skiba, U., Smith, R.I., Donovan, R.G., Brett, H.E., Hewitt, C.N. & Nemitz, E. (2007) Quantifying the effect of urban tree planting on concentrations and deposition of PM10 in two UK conurbations. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 84558467.
  • McHugh, M., Harrod, T. & Morgan, R. (2002) The extent of soil erosion in upland England and Wales. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 27, 99107.
  • Mclauhglin, S.B., Wullschleger, S.D., Sun, G. & Nosal, M. (2007) Interactive effects of ozone and climate on water use, soil moisture content and streamflow in a southern Appalachian forest in the USA. New Phytologist, 174, 125136.
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Mills, G., Hayes, F., Wilkinson, S. & Davies, W.J. (2009) Chronic exposure to increasing background ozone impairs stomatal functioning in grassland species. Global Change Biology, 15, 15221533.
  • Mills, G., Hayes, F., Norris, D., Hall, J., Coyle, M., Cambridge, H., Cinderby, S., Abbott, J., Cooke, S. & Murrells, T. (2011) Impacts of Ozone Pollution on Food Security in the UK: A Case Study for Two Contrasting Years, 2006 and 2008. Report for Defra contract AQ08610; http://icpvegetation.ceh.ac.uk/.
  • Milne, R. & Brown, T.A. (1997) Carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain. Journal of Environmental Management, 49, 413433.
  • Misselbrook, T., Chadwick, D.R., Gilhepsy, S.L., Chambers, B.J., Smith, K.A., Williams, J. & Dragosits, U. (2010) Inventory of Ammonia Emissions from UK Agriculture 2009. Report on Defra Contract AC0112. Available at: http://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/reports/cat07/1102171433_nh3inv2009_final1_261010.pdf (accessed 8 August 2012)
  • Misselbrook, T.H., Cape, J.N., Cardenas, L.M., Chadwick, D.R., Dragosits, U., Hobbs, P.J., Nemitz, E., Reis, S., Skiba, U. & Sutton, M.A. (2011) Key unknowns in estimating emissions from UK land management. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 10671074.
  • Monteith, D.T., Hildrew, A.G., Flower, R.J., Raven, P.J., Beaumont, W.R.B., Collen, P., Kreiser, A.M., Shilland, E.M. & Winterbottom, J.H. (2005) Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK. Environmental Pollution, 137, 83101.
  • Nicholas, A.P., Walling, D.E., Sweet, R.J. & Fang, X. (2006) Development and evaluation of a new catchment-scale model of floodplain sedimentation. Water Resources Research, 42, W10426.
  • Noe, G.B. & Hupp, C.R. (2005) Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in floodplains of Atlantic Coastal Plain Rivers, USA. Ecological Applications, 15, 11781190.
  • Oenema, O., van Grinsven, H., Jacobsen, B.H., Rabl, A., Gren, M., Holland, M., Klimst, Z., Hicks, K., Brouwer, R., Dickens, R., Willems, J., Termansen, M., Velthof, G., Alkemade, R., van Oorschot, M. & Webb, J. (2011) Developing integrating approaches to nitrogen management. The European Nitrogen Assessment (eds M.A. Sutton, C.M. Howard, J.W. Erisman, G. Billen, A. Bleeker, P. Grennfelt, H. van Grinsven & B. Grizzetti), pp. 541550. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Owen, S.M., MacKenzie, A.R., Stewart, H., Donovan, R. & Hewitt, C.N. (2003) Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission estimates from an urban tree canopy. Ecological Applications, 13, 927938.
  • Pan, G., Smith, P. & Pan, W. (2009) The role of soil organic matter in maintaining the productivity and yield stability of cereals in China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129, 344348.
  • Quine, T.A. & Van Oost, K. (2007) Quantifying carbon sequestration as a result of soil erosion and deposition: retrospective assessment using caesium-137 and carbon inventories. Global Change Biology, 13, 26102625.
  • Quine, T.A. & Zhang, Y. (2002) An investigation of spatial variation in soil erosion, soil properties, and crop production within an agricultural field in Devon, United Kingdom. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 57, 5565.
  • RoTAP (2012) Review of Transboundary Air Pollution: Acidification, Eutrophication, Ground Level Ozone and Heavy Metals in the UK. Contract Report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK.
  • Rounsevell, M.D.A., Evans, S.P. & Bullock, P. (1999) Climate change and agricultural soils: impacts and adaptation. Climate Change, 43, 683709.
  • Rowson, J.G., Gibson, H.S., Worrall, F., Ostle, N., Burt, T.P. & Adamson, J.K. (2010) The complete carbon budget of a drained peat catchment. Soil Use and Management, 26, 261273.
  • Royal Society (2008) Ground Level Ozone in the 21st Century: Future Trends, Impacts and Policy Implications. The Royal Society, London.
  • Scottish Executive (2006) The Scottish Forestry Strategy. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh. Available from: http://www.forestry.gov.uk/sfs (accessed 8 August 2012)
  • Scottish Government (2012) Farming for a Better Climate. Available from: http://www.sac.ac.uk/climatechange/farmingforabetterclimate/ (accessed 8 August 2012)
  • Sitch, S., Cox, P.M., Collins, P.W. & Huntingford, C. (2007) Indirect radiative forcing of climate through ozone effects on the land-carbon sink. Nature, 448, 791794.
  • Smart, J.C.R., Hicks, K., Morrissey, T., Heinemeyer, A., Sutton, M.A. & Ashmore, M. (2011) Applying the ecosystem service concept to air quality management in the UK: a case study for ammonia. Environmetrics, 22, 649661.
  • Smith, P. (2012a) Agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation potential globally, in Europe and in the UK: what have we learned in the last 20 years? Global Change Biology, 18, 3543.
  • Smith, P. (2012b) Soils and climate change. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4, 539544.
  • Smith, P., Ashmore, M., Black, H., Burgess, P., Evans, C., Hails, R., Potts, S.G., Quine, T. & Thomson, A. (2011) Regulating Services. UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report, pp. 535596. UK National Ecosystem Assessment, UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • Spencer, I., Bann, C., Moran, D., McVittie, A., Lawrence, K., Caldwell, V. & Morris, J. (2008) Environmental Accounts for Agriculture. Project SFS0601. Final Report for Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs; Welsh Assembly Government; Scottish Government; Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland). Available from: http://archive.defra.gov.uk/evidence/economics/foodfarm/reports/envacc/documents/Jacobs-fullreport.pdf (accessed 8 August 2012)
  • Stern, N. (2007) The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Erisman, J.W., Billen, G., Bleeker, A., Grennfelt, P. & van Grinsven, B. (eds) (2011) The European Nitrogen Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • TFRN (2010) Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Available at: http://www.clrtap-tfrn.org (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Thomson, A. & Hallsworth, S. (2011) Projections of Emissions and Removals from the LULUCF sector to 2050. Contract report for DECC. Available at http://nora.nerc.ac.uk (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Tiwary, A., Sinnett, D., Peachey, C., Chalabi, Z., Vardoulakis, S., Fletcher, T., Leonaride, G., Grundy, C., Azapagic, A. & Hutchings, T.R. (2009) An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: a case study in London. Environmental Pollution, 157, 26452653.
  • Toet, S., Ineson, P., Peacock, S. & Ashmore, M. (2011) Elevated ozone reduces methane emissions from peatland mesocosms. Global Change Biology, 17, 288296.
  • UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011) The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • UNECE (1999) Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone. Available at: http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/multi_h1.html (accessed 8 August 2012).
  • Van Oost, K., Cerdan, O. & Quine, T.A. (2009) Accelerated sediment fluxes by water and tillage erosion on European agricultural land. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 16251634.
  • Van Oost, K., Quine, T.A., Govers, G., De Gryze, S., Six, J., Harden, J.W., Ritchie, J.C., McCarty, G.W., Heckrath, G., Kosmas, C., Giraldez, J.V., da Silva, J.R. & Merckx, R. (2007) The impact of agricultural soil erosion on the global carbon cycle. Science, 318, 626629.
  • Wedlich, K., Rintoul, N., Peacock, S., Cape, J.N., Coyle, M., Toet, S., Barnes, J. & Ashmore, M. (2012) Effects of ozone on species composition in an upland grassland. Oecologia, 168, 11371146.
  • Weller, D.M., Raaijmakers, J.M., Gardener, B.B.M. & Thomashow, L.S. (2002) Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40, 309348.
  • Wilby, R.L. & Perry, G.L.W. (2006) Climate change, biodiversity and the urban environment: a critical review based on London, UK. Progress in Physical Geography, 30, 7398.