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Appendix S1. Validation of dung surveys as an index of relative abundance of herbivores.

Appendix S2. Effects of wildlife on soil properties.

Appendix S3. Analysis of spatial autocorrelation in plant community composition data.

Figure S1. Relationship between estimates of wildlife and domestic stock from dung surveys to those from camera-trap surveys.

Figure S2. Effect sizes (loge response ratios) of wildlife removal on structural characteristics of the plant community across abiotic gradients.

Figure S3. Relationship between soil texture, livestock abundance and plant species richness.

Figure S4. Mantel correlogram plots showing spatial autocorrelation in data before and after transformations.

Figure S5. Results from discrimination analysis of plant community composition after controlling for spatial autocorrelation.

Table S1. Summary of analytical approaches used.

Table S2. Model average parameters for models of plant community characteristics based on abundance of all herbivores and selected environmental factors.

Table S3. Model average parameters for models examining the effect size (loge response ratios) of herbivore effects on plant communities by selected environmental gradients.

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