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Appendix S1.

Figure S1.1. Exploratory plots of abiotic conditions in the six populations.

Figure S1.2. Exploratory plots of vital rates.

Figure S1.3. Density dependence: clonal reproduction was the only vital rate with density dependence detected.

Figure S1.4. Parameter values from the models that included size x abiotic interactions.

Figure S1.5. Hierarchical study design and model structure.

Figure S1.6. Testing for differences in abiotic relationships among populations.

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Appendix S2.

Table S1. Model selection.

Figure S2.1. Full model.

Figure S2.2. No interactions.

Figure S2.3. Light (PAR) only.

Figure S2.4. Soil moisture (TDR) only.

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Appendix S3. Model equations with mean parameter estimates and standard deviations in parentheses.

Table S3.1. Intercept parameter values for each population and vital rate (αp in equations above).

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