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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition increases glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint


Correspondence: Antônio Ribeiro de Oliveira Jr, Rua São Romão 343/701, Santo Antônio Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30330-120, Brazil. Emails:;


  1. There is increasing evidence suggesting involvement of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in carbohydrate metabolism and its response to stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic inhibition of the RAS on glucose and insulin levels during acute restraint stress.
  2. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 10 mg/kg per day enalapril solution or vehicle for 14 days. After 14 days, rats were divided into three experimental groups: enalapril + restraint (ER), vehicle + restraint (VR) and enalapril + saline (ES). Rats in the restraint groups were subjected to 30 min restraint stress, whereas rats in the ES groups were given saline infusion instead. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min restraint stress or saline infusion.
  3. After restraint, a hyperglycaemic response was observed in the ER and VR groups that peaked at 20 and 10 min, respectively (< 0.05 compared with baseline). The area under the glucose curve was markedly increased in the ER and VR groups compared with that in the ES group (< 0.05 for both). Importantly, restraint induced a marked increase in insulin secretion in the ER group compared with only a mild elevation in the VR group; insulin secretion in both groups peaked at 20 min (< 0.05 compared with baseline). Analysis of the area under the insulin curve confirmed an increase in insulin secretion in the ER compared with the VR and ES groups (< 0.05 for both).
  4. The results of the present study reinforce that the RAS is involved in modulating responses to stress and suggest that RAS inhibition with enalapril may increase glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint.