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Supplementary material S1. Measurements of oxygen concentration changes following light–dark shift in different wavelength ranges.

Fig. S1. Gross oxygenic photosynthesis rates measured under full and VIS illumination. Under full illumination rate measurements were performed by either turning off the full light spectrum (Full, Full shut off) or turning off just the VIS light spectrum, leaving the NIR light on (Full, VIS shut off). Turning off the full light spectrum will affect all phototrophic organisms, while turning off only the VIS light spectrum leaves anoxygenic phototrophy using NIR light active.

Supplementary material S2. Measurement of potential rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis.

Fig. S2. Oxygen, sulfide and anoxygenic photosynthesis profiles measured in the Guerrero Negro microbial mats.

Supplementary material S3. Light intensity spectra of the different illumination settings.

Fig. S3. Spectra of the different artificial light sources used in the experiments, as determined with a calibrated spectrometer. The sun spectrum is shown for comparison.

Supplementary material S4. Change in bicarbonate ions per added proton.

Fig. S4.1. Concentration of HCO3 ions, buffering capacity, β, and the change in HCO3 ions per molecule of added strong acid, N, as a function of the carbonate buffer pH.

Fig. S4.2. The change in HCO3 ions per molecule of added strong acid, N, as a function of the carbonate buffer pH.

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