Fig. S1. Principal coordinate plots of weighted UniFrac distances showing clustering of individual surface types across the four kitchens examined. Letters in each plot indicate the kitchen of origin.

Fig. S2. Principal coordinate plots of weighted UniFrac distances overlaid with the abundance of the Proteobacteria (A) and Firmicutes (B). Bubbles are scaled according to abundance of each phylum.

Fig. S3. Indicator taxa identified by SIMPER for raw produce (A), human skin (palms) (B) and faucet water (C).

Fig. S4. Results of SourceTracker showing relative contributions of skin (A), produce (B) and faucet water (C) to kitchen surface bacterial communities. Figures are independent of each other and are coloured so that the darker shades indicate a relatively higher abundance of bacteria derived from that particular source. Figures not drawn to scale.

Table S1. Summary of kitchen surfaces for which over 10 000 quality 16S rRNA gene sequence fragments were obtained and used to examine bacterial biogeography of residential kitchens.

Table S2. Average percentage abundance of produce indicator taxa across replicate kitchen surfaces.

Table S3. Average percentage abundance of palm indicator taxa across all kitchen surfaces.

Table S4. Average percentage abundance of faucet water indicator taxa across all kitchen surfaces.

Table S5. The bacterial communities of the food items listed were characterized using barcoded pyrosequencing and averaged across all foods to identify bacterial taxa indicative of raw produce (J. W. L. and N. F., submitted). Note that for all produce items, both conventionally and organically grown produce was characterized.

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