I am grateful to the many colleagues with whom I have had conversations that have influenced my thinking about groups, creativity, and innovation implementation. For commenting on an early draft of this article I thank particularly Nigel Nicholson and Carsten De Dreu, and for their constructive and insightful criticisms, I thank the editor and three anonymous reviewers of this journal.
Sparkling Fountains or Stagnant Ponds: An Integrative Model of Creativity and Innovation Implementation in Work Groups
Article first published online: 14 JUN 2002
Volume 51, Issue 3, pages 355–387, July 2002
How to Cite
West, M. A. (2002), Sparkling Fountains or Stagnant Ponds: An Integrative Model of Creativity and Innovation Implementation in Work Groups. Applied Psychology:An International Review, 51: 355–387. doi: 10.1111/1464-0597.00951
I would add another characteristic—task significance (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). This refers to the importance of the task in contributing to organisational goals or to the wider society. A lifeboat team in a rural coastal area with busy shipping lanes and a health and safety team in a high-risk industry are likely to be highly intrinsically motivated by the significance of their tasks.
This relationship is likely to be, to some extent, reciprocal. Available skills within the team will limit the task that can be performed. If the breast cancer care team has no oncologist then some discussions about diagnosis and treatment will have to be held by people outside the team.
Below, I explore how diversity influences integrating group processes.
Below it is suggested that where task characteristics are such that the team members are highly intrinsically motivated then the requirement for external demands to motivate innovation implementation will be weak.
At the extreme of course, high levels of threat may reduce group cohesion and safety when group members feel the capacities of the group are inadequate to manage the threats or demands.
Sternberg and Lubart (1996) refer to synthetic and practical contextual qualities of creativity, which include the extent to which ideas escape the bounds of conventional thinking and the persuasiveness of the ideas to those affected by their implementation.
- Issue published online: 14 JUN 2002
- Article first published online: 14 JUN 2002
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