Two meanings of identification —as a developmental process and as a mechanism of defense —were investigated as they relate to identity status. Identification with parents was assessed by comparing participants’“ideal self” Adjective Q-sort (Block, 1978) with the same Q-sort done for either mother or father. Defense identification was assessed from TAT stories using Cramer’s (1991a) Defense Mechanism Manual. Marcia’s (1966, 1980) categories of identity status were determined from Mallory’s (1989) prototypes based on the California Adult Q-sort (Block, 1961/1978). The results indicated that the four identity statuses are differentially predicted by parent identification, by defense identification, and by an interaction between the two types of identification. Further, the nature of these relations differs by gender. Caution should be used in applying these findings to other populations.