Theory & Methods: Cross-over Designs in the Presence of Higher Order Carry-overs



In cross-over experiments, where different treatments are applied successively to the same experimental unit over a number of time periods, it is often expected that a treatment has a carry-over effect in one or more periods following its period of application. The effect of interaction between the treatments in the successive periods may also affect the response. However, it seems that all systematic studies of the optimality properties of cross-over designs have been done under models where carry-over effects are assumed to persist for only one subsequent period. This paper proposes a model which allows for the possible presence of carry-over effects up to k subsequent periods, together with all the interactions between treatments applied at k+ 1 successive periods. This model allows the practitioner to choose k for any experiment according to the requirements of that particular experiment. Under this model, the cross-over designs are studied and the class of optimal designs is obtained. A method of constructing these optimal designs is also given.