One hundred 3-year-olds with speech delay of unknown origin and 539 same-age peers were compared with respect to 6 variables linked to speech disorders: male sex, family history of developmental communication disorder, low maternal education, low socioeconomic status (indexed by Medicaid health insurance), African American race, and prolonged otitis media. Abnormal hearing was also examined in a subset of 279 children who had at least 2 hearing evaluations between 6 and 18 months of age. Significant odds ratios were found only for low maternal education, male sex, and positive family history; a child with all 3 factors was 7.71 times as likely to have a speech delay as a child without any of these factors.