Of what significance to theological education is critical reflection? Representing an influential perspective, Charles Wood seems to ascribe to critical reflection the highest priority by defining theology as “critical reflection upon the validity of the Christian witness.” This article argues that such a perspective devalues participatory modes of knowing. In contrast, the scientific epistemology of Michael Polanyi better illumines the pedagogical nature and theological orientation of theological education. Specifically, his notion of “indwelling” serves as a point of integration by which participative knowing is extended and intensified by the clarificatory power of critical reflection.