• 1
    Meckel RA. Save the Babies: American Public Health Reform and the Prevention of Infant Mortality, 1850-1829. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; 1998:92,125.
  • 2
    Koplik H. The history of the first milk depot or gouttes de lait with consultations in America. JAMA. 1914;63(18):1574-1575.
  • 3
    Markel H. For the welfare of children: the origins of the relationship between U.S. public health workers and pediatricians. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(6):893-899.
  • 4
    In this essay, I am using the phrase “drop of milk” as a metaphor rather than as a statement of the superiority or inferiority of cow's milk–based formulae for feeding infants. Indeed, as a pediatrician, I have long appreciated the superiority of human breast milk for human babies. There is, of course, a much longer history of “artificial infant feeding,” with modified versions of both whole cow's milk and water-diluted formulas based on condensed cow's milk compared with breast-feeding and the now antiquated practice of wet-nursing. Nevertheless, in the early 20th century, many pediatricians and not a few mothers considered cow's milk–based formulas to be a modern, scientific advance in infant nutrition. By the close of World War II and in the following decades, nutrition experts realized that human breast milk was a far superior means of feeding babies, for growth and development as well as immunological and bonding issues. This social and medical history is superbly explained in Apple RD. Mothers and Medicine: A Social History of Infant Feeding, 1890-1950. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press; 1987. See also Wolf JH. Don't kill your baby: feeding infants in Chicago, 1903-1924, J Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 1998;53:219-253; and DuPuis EM. Nature's Perfect Food: How Milk Became America's Drink. New York: New York University Press; 2002.
  • 5
    Frantz JB. Gail Borden: Dairyman to a Nation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; 1951:238-240, 241-255; quotation is from 239.
  • 6
    Milbank Memorial Fund. Centennial Report: Informing Policy for Health Care and Population Health. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund; 2005:5-6.
  • 7
    Fox, DM. The significance of the Milbank Memorial Fund for policy: an assessment at its centennial. Milbank Q. 2006;84(1):5-36.
  • 8