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Gregory King and the economic structure of early modern England: an input–output table for 1688


  • John Dodgson

  • An earlier version of this article was presented at the Institute for Historical Research ‘Economic and Social History of the Premodern World’ seminar at the University of London, and I am grateful to participants for valuable comments. I also thank Sara Horrell, Marcus Jecock, Peter King, Paul Warde, Leigh Shaw-Taylor, and Nuala Zahedieh for information. However, I alone am responsible for the contents of the article.


This article presents an input–output table for England and Wales for the year 1688 which is based on the extensive dataset compiled by Gregory King in the 1690s, together with other contemporary and modern material relating to the end of the seventeenth century. As well as showing the inter-relationships between the different parts of the economy, the data in the table can be used to compute national income and the shares of different sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, and services in total value added. Further, the approach used to compile the table provides a way to subject King's data to as much independent assessment as is possible given alternative sources of information. Sensitivity analysis is used to assess the impact on national income and sector shares of alternative estimates of the grain harvest, metal manufacture, and service sector output.