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Footnotes

  • 1
    G. Finlayson, ‘A moving frontier: voluntarism and the state in British social welfare 1911–49’, Twentieth Century British Hist., i (1990), 183206, at p. 184.
  • 2
    W. Beveridge, Voluntary Action: a Report on Methods of Social Advancement (1948), p. 303.
  • 3
    M. Daunton, ‘Payment and participation: welfare and state-formation in Britain 1900–51’, Past & Present, cl (1996), 169216, at pp. 188–9.
  • 4
    S. Gunn, ‘Class, identity and the urban: the middle class in England, c.1790–1950’, Urban Hist., xxxi (2004), 2947, at pp. 40–5; R. McKibbin, Classes and Cultures: England 1918–51 (Oxford, 1998), pp. 98101; R. Trainor, ‘The middle class’, in Cambridge Urban History of Britain, iii: 1840–1950, ed. M. Daunton (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 673713, at p. 676.
  • 5
    N. Hayes, ‘Counting civil society: deconstructing elite participation in the provincial English city, 1900–50’, Urban Hist., xl (2013), 287314; R. Trainor, ‘The “decline” of British urban governance since 1850: a reassessment’, in Urban Governance: Britain and Beyond Since 1750, ed. R. J. Morris and R. Trainor (Aldershot, 2000), pp. 2846.
  • 6
    G. Mess and C. Braithwaite, ‘The finance of voluntary social service’, in Voluntary Social Services since 1918, ed. H. Mess (1947), pp. 188203, at pp. 202–3.
  • 7
    N. Milne, ‘The position of voluntary social services in 1918’, in Mess , pp. 827, at p. 10.
  • 8
    C. Braithwaite, The Voluntary Citizen: an Enquiry into the Place of Philanthropy in the Community (1938), p. 133; The Evidence for Voluntary Action: being the Memoranda by Organisations and Individuals and other Material Relevant to Voluntary Action, ed. W. Beveridge and A. F. Wells (1949), pp. 6981.
  • 9
    J. Pickstone, ‘Production, community and consumption: the political economy of 20th-century medicine’, in Companion to Medicine in the 20th Century, ed. R. Cooter and J. Pickstone (2003), pp. 119, at pp. 6–7.
  • 10
    J. Pickstone, Medicine and Industrial Society: a History of Hospital Development in Manchester and its Region, 1752–1946 (Manchester, 1986), pp. 254, 230; M. Gorsky and J. Mohan, with T. Willis, Mutualism and Health Care: British Hospital Contributory Schemes in the 20th Century (Manchester, 2006), pp. 92123.
  • 11
    S. Cherry, ‘Accountability, entitlement, and control issues and voluntary hospital funding c.1860–1939’, Social Hist. of Medicine, ix (1996), 215233, at p. 220; S. Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service: financing the voluntary hospitals, 1900–39’, Econ. Hist. Rev., l (1997), 305326, at pp. 317–21.
  • 12
    A. Brandt and M. Gardner, ‘The golden age of medicine’, in Cooter and Pickstone , pp. 2137, at p. 28; Pickstone, Medicine in Industrial Society, p. 252.
  • 13
    M. Gorsky, J. Mohan and M. Powell, ‘The financial health of voluntary hospitals in inter-war Britain’, Econ. Hist. Rev., lvi (2002), 533557; Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service’, pp. 305326.
  • 14
    Twentieth Annual Report of the Ministry of Health 1938–39 (Parl. Papers [Cmd. 6089], xi), pp. 246247; A. Levene, ‘Between less eligibility and the NHS: the changing place of Poor Law hospitals in England and Wales, 1929–39’, Twentieth Century British Hist., xx (2009), 322345.
  • 15
    B. Abel-Smith, The Hospitals 1800–1948: a Study in Social Administration in England and Wales (1964), p. 405.
  • 16
    Burdett's Hospitals and Charities 1920 (1920), p. 5; Hospitals Yearbook 1932 (1932), p. 19; Hospitals Yearbook 1940 (1940), p. xxxvii; Twentieth Annual Report of the Ministry of Health, p. 247.
  • 17
    M. Gorsky, J. Mohan and M. Powell, ‘British voluntary hospitals, 1871–1938: the geography of provision and utilization’, Jour. Hist. Geography, xxv (1999), 463482, at pp. 468–72; M. Powell, ‘Hospital provision before the NHS: territorial justice or inverse care law’, Jour. Social Policy, xxi (1992), 145163.
  • 18
    J. Reinarz, Health Care in Birmingham: the Birmingham Teaching Hospitals 1779–1939 (Woodbridge, 2009), pp. 184215; S. Sturdy and R. Cooter, ‘Science, scientific management, and the transformation of medicine in Britain c.1870–1950’, Hist. of Science, xxxvi (1998), 421466.
  • 19
    Hospitals Yearbook 1940, p. 71. Figures taken from 1938 exclude separate convalescent accommodation.
  • 20
    Voluntary hospitals database <http://www.hospitalsdatabase.lshtm.ac.uk/> [accessed 5 July 2012].
  • 21
    Percentage increases for inpatient admissions (1921–38) are as follows: Leicester – 237%; Nottingham – 200%; Leeds – 152%; Sheffield Hospital – 151%; Sheffield Infirmary – 147%.
  • 22
    For the medical-social cultures of these cities, see B. M. Doyle, ‘Labour and hospitals in three Yorkshire towns: Middlesbrough, Leeds, Sheffield, 1919–38’, Social Hist. of Medicine, xxiii (2010), 374392; N. Hayes, ‘“Our hospitals”? Voluntary provision, community and civic consciousness in Nottingham before the NHS’, Midland Hist., xxxvii (2012), 84105; Hayes, ‘Counting civil society’.
  • 23
    Ministry of Labour, Report for the Year 1933 (1934), pp. 1011; D. Nash and D. Reeder, Leicester in the 20th Century (Stroud, 1993), pp. 5456; M. Meadowcroft, ‘The years of political transition, 1914–39’, in A History of Modern Leeds, ed. D. Fraser (Manchester, 1980), pp. 410–36, at pp. 430–1.
  • 24
    F. Hampton, ‘A brief survey of Nottingham's employment’, July 1936 (in author's possession); Nottingham Journal, 21 July 1936.
  • 25
    Pilgrim Trust, Men without Work: a Report Made to the Pilgrim Trust (Cambridge, 1938), pp. 4750.
  • 26
    Leicestershire County Archives, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Annual Report 1925 (Leicester, 1926) (hereafter L.R.I., Annual Report and year), p. xi.
  • 27
    G. Tweedale, ‘The business and technology of Sheffield steelmaking’, in The History of the City of Sheffield 1843–1993, ii: Society, ed. C. Binfield and others (Sheffield, 1993), pp. 142193; S. Pollard, ‘Labour’, in Binfield and others, pp. 260278, at p. 272.
  • 28
    Sheffield Local Studies Library, Sheffield Royal Infirmary, Annual Report 1929 (Sheffield, 1930) (hereafter S.R.I., Annual Report and year), p. 8.
  • 29
    K. Honeyman, Well Suited: a History of the Leeds Clothing Industry, 1850–1990 (Oxford, 2000); J. Chartres and K. Honeyman, Leeds City Business, 1893–1993 (Leeds, 1993); Doyle, ‘Labour and hospitals’.
  • 30
    R. Pinker, English Hospital Statistics 1861–1938 (1966), p. 154; Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service’, pp. 314315, 317–20; Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, pp. 546550.
  • 31
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, p. 550.
  • 32
    F. K. Prochaska, Philanthropy and the Hospitals of London: the King's Fund 1897–1990 (Oxford, 1992), pp. 104, 129–30.
  • 33
    Finlayson, p. 184.
  • 34
    S. Cherry, ‘Beyond National Health Insurance. The voluntary hospitals and hospital contributory schemes: a regional study’, Social Hist. of Medicine, v (1992), 455482, at p. 479; J. Mohan, ‘“The caprice of charity”: geographical variations in the finances of British voluntary hospitals before the NHS’, in Financing Medicine: the British Experience since 1750, ed. M. Gorsky and S. Sheard (2006), pp. 7792, at p. 86; Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service’, pp. 314315.
  • 35
    Philanthropic income includes money raised or donated to meet the specific running costs of each hospital and which passed through the income and expenditure account. It excludes the large sums occasionally donated by national bodies or charities such as the Red Cross, which were also so entered, but does include most legacies.
  • 36
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, p. 550; Mohan, p. 88.
  • 37
    Sheffield Local Studies Library, Sheffield Royal Hospital, Annual Report 1921 (Sheffield, 1922) (hereafter S.R.H., Annual Report and year), pp. 2239; S.R.H., Annual Report 1926, pp. 2533.
  • 38
    Overall the scheme managed by the Joint Hospitals Council raised almost £200,000 annually by 1938, distributed to the city's five voluntary hospitals, and ambulance and convalescent services (Sheffield Joint Hospitals Council, Annual Report 1938 (Sheffield, 1939) (hereafter S.J.H.C., Annual Report and year). For its early history, see T. Willis, ‘Politics, ideology and the governance of health care in Sheffield before the NHS’, in Morris and Trainor , pp. 128149.
  • 39
    Gorsky and others, Mutualism and Health Care, pp. 106117.
  • 40
    Hospitals Yearbook 1932, pp. 206215; B. M. Doyle, ‘The economics, culture and politics of hospital contributory schemes: the case of inter-war Leeds’, Labour Hist. Rev., lxxvii (2012), 289315.
  • 41
    S. Cherry, ‘Regional comparators in the funding and organisation of the voluntary hospital system, c.1860–1939’, in Gorsky and Sheard , pp. 5976, at pp. 65–7.
  • 42
    Gorsky and others, Mutualism and Health Care, pp. 115116.
  • 43
    Doyle, ‘Hospital contributory schemes’.
  • 44
    Nottingham University Manuscripts Department (hereafter N.U.M.D.), Nh M2/3, Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Hospital Saturday Fund (hereafter N.S.F.), minutes of executive, 2 March 1937; Nottingham Guardian, 28 Nov. 1938; R. G. Hogarth, The Trent and I Go Wandering By (Nottingham, 1940), p. 42.
  • 45
    Leicestershire County Archives (hereafter L.C.A.), DE 6529/18; L.R.I., DE 6529/18, minutes of quarterly meeting, 29 Jan. 1930; E. R. Frizelle, The Life and Times of the Royal Infirmary at Leicester: the Making of a Teaching Hospital 1766–1980 (Leicester, 1988), pp. 351353.
  • 46
    L.R.I., Annual Report 1938.
  • 47
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, p. 552. Gorsky and others tested correlations across a number of variable charitable streams against income from workplace Saturday or contributory funds. In all cases a negative correlation existed between rising fund income and a falling off in subscriptions, donations and collections. The correlation, however, was not notably strong (r = −0.30, −0.24, −0.52 respectively).
  • 48
    Based on an extrapolation from a figure of £27,000 collected in total from the iron and steel employers and employees (S.J.H.C., Annual Report 1924, p. 22).
  • 49
    Leeds General Infirmary, Annual Report 1938 (Leeds, 1939) (hereafter L.G.I., Annual Report and year), pp. 7183.
  • 50
    Lists of subscribers to these hospitals were published annually in the reports, e.g. Leeds Public Dispensary, Annual Report of the Board XCVI 1919–20 (Leeds, 1921), pp. 2232.
  • 51
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1923, pp. 2133; S.R.H., Annual Report 1926, pp. 2533.
  • 52
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, pp. 547550.
  • 53
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, p. 551; Mohan, pp. 8687. See also Cherry, ‘Regional comparators’, pp. 5976.
  • 54
    Our particular thanks to Martin Gorsky for providing the initial lists of hospitals upon which the survey was based. Individual figures are taken from the Hospitals Yearbook 1931 (1931) (Tables 65–70) and 1939 (Table 12). Figures in this set include interest from investments but exclude legacies. The variance, however, is equally striking if interest from investment is also excluded.
  • 55
    Coefficient of correlation between charitable/voluntarist income and patient direct/indirect payment was: Leicester r = 0.88, Nottingham r = 0.75, Leeds r = 0.17, Sheffield Infirmary r = −0.37 and Sheffield Hospital r = −0.88. Overall across the range of hospitals r = 0.3.
  • 56
    N.U.M.D., Nottingham General Hospital, Annual Report 1919 and 1920 (Nottingham, 1920–1) (hereafter N.G.H., Annual Report and year).
  • 57
    Nottingham Guardian, 21 Apr. 1921.
  • 58
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1935.
  • 59
    Sheffield City Archive (hereafter S.C.A.), NHS28/11/4/3–4.
  • 60
    Hospitals Yearbook 1933 (1933), pp. 1314; Hospitals Yearbook 1934 (1934), pp. 1112; Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, p. 549.
  • 61
    L.R.I., Annual Report 1923, p. 18 and 1933, p. xxiv; Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, p. 549.
  • 62
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1930, p. 26 and 1932, p. 26; S.R.I., Annual Report 1929, p. 5 and 1932, p. 5.
  • 63
    N.G.H., Annual Report 1919.
  • 64
    N.U.M.D., Uhg G27/M/1/2, N.G.H. minutes of House and Finance Committee, 2 Feb. 1920.
  • 65
    N.G.H., Annual Report 1926 and 1939.
  • 66
    Leeds Local and Family History Library, Leeds and Districts Workpeople's Hospital Fund, Annual Report 1938 (Leeds, 1939) (hereafter L.D.W.H.F., Annual Report and year).
  • 67
    N.G.H., Annual Report 1934.
  • 68
    L.C.A., DE 6529.16, L.R.I. minutes of Finance Committee, 9 Feb. 1927; L.C.A., DE 6529.16, L.R.I., minutes of General Purpose Committee, 12 Oct. 1927; L.C.A., DE 6529/17, L.R.I. minutes of governors, 16 Jan. 1929.
  • 69
    J. Morris, Religion and Urban Change: Croydon, 1840–1914 (Woodbridge, 1992), pp. 128146; S. J. D. Green, Religion in the Age of Decline: Organisation and Experience in Industrial Yorkshire, 1870–1920 (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 351379.
  • 70
    N.U.M.D., Nh M2/1, N.S.F minutes of executive, 3 July 1917; Nh M3/2, N.S.F. minutes of Finance Committee, 2 Sept. 1919.
  • 71
    S.R.I., Annual Report 1932.
  • 72
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1923.
  • 73
    University of Sussex, Mass-Observation file 1665, ‘Feeling about hospitals’, Table IX; N. Hayes, ‘Did we really want a National Health Service? Hospitals, patients and public opinions before 1948’, Eng. Hist. Rev., cxxvii (2012), 625661.
  • 74
    Political and Economic Planning, Report on the British Health Services (1937), p. 249.
  • 75
    L.C.A., DE 6529/14, L.R.I. half yearly meeting, 23 July 1925.
  • 76
    J. Stevenson, British Society 1914–45 (Harmondsworth, 1984), pp. 318319.
  • 77
    Nottingham Guardian, 31 Oct. 1929.
  • 78
    See Doyle, ‘Hospital contributory schemes’, for further details.
  • 79
    S.J.H.C., Annual Report 1925.
  • 80
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, pp. 536, 540; Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service’, p. 309. The lack of uniform accounting methods makes a nationally based analysis impossible (Pinker, p. 143; C. Harris, ‘Financial review’, Hospitals Yearbook 1940, pp. xlivxlv, 55–6).
  • 81
    Braithwaite, Voluntary Citizen, pp. 137, 147.
  • 82
    Braithwaite, Voluntary Citizen, p. 144; Hospitals Yearbooks 1935–40.
  • 83
    J. E. Stone, Hospital Organization and Management (1927), p. 216; Hospitals Yearbook 1940, p. 68.
  • 84
    For the purpose of inter-hospital comparison, such income was re-entered onto the maintenance account as extraordinary income in Table 1 and not shown as an asset in Table 2.
  • 85
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1935, p. 17. See also L.G.I., Annual Report 1934, p. 29.
  • 86
    Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service’, Table 5; Gorsky and others, ‘British voluntary hospitals’, Table 5.
  • 87
    Asset values based on yearly adjusted figures within the institutions to take into account market fluctuations.
  • 88
    Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service’, pp. 312315, 321–2; Gorsky and others, ‘British voluntary hospitals’, pp. 540542.
  • 89
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1934, p. 39 and 1938, p. 49; S.R.I., Annual Report 1934, p. 55 and 1938, p. 57; S.R.H., Annual Report 1934, p. 21 and 1938, p. 29.
  • 90
    N.G.H., Annual Report 1939, pp. 1016.
  • 91
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1938, pp. 1315.
  • 92
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1921, p. 7.
  • 93
    J. Roach, ‘The Sheffield community and public work, 1790–1914’, Yorks. Archaeol. Jour., lxxvii (2005), 225240.
  • 94
    L.C.A., DE 6529/16, L.R.I. minutes of Finance Committee, 9 Feb. 1927; L.C.A., DE 6529/16, L.R.I. minutes of General Purpose Committee, 12 Oct. 1927; L.C.A., DE 6529/17, L.R.I. minutes of governors, 16 Jan. 1929; L.C.A., DE 6529/12, L.R.I. minutes of Joint Committee, 9 March 1921.
  • 95
    Nottingham Guardian, 31 Oct. 1929.
  • 96
    L.R.I., Annual Report 1934, p. xiii.
  • 97
    Sheffield Guardian, 14 Oct. 1926.
  • 98
    Cherry, ‘Before the National Health Service’, pp. 321322; Gorsky and others, ‘Finanical health’, pp. 540542.
  • 99
    Sheffield Telegraph, 28 Dec. 1918.
  • 100
    Sheffield Telegraph, 4 Jan. 1919; Yorkshire Post, 1 July 1924.
  • 101
    Hayes, ‘Our hospitals?’, pp. 84105.
  • 102
    Nottingham Evening Post, 31 Oct. 1929; N.U.M.D., Nh M1/2, N.S.F minutes, 21 Nov. 1936.
  • 103
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1934, pp. 15, 29.
  • 104
    L.C.A., DE 6529/11, L.R.I. minutes of Building Committee, 10 Dec. 1919.
  • 105
    L.R.I., Annual Report 1920, p. 13.
  • 106
    L.R.I., Annual Report 1925, p. xxxiv.
  • 107
    L.C.A., DE 6529/14, L.R.I. minutes half yearly meeting, 24 July 1924.
  • 108
    L.R.I., Annual Report 1932, pp. xxvxxvi, 44–9. Sheffield saw a similar Great Hospital Bazaar at the end of 1921, organized by the nursing staff and women, which raised almost exactly the same figure for the four hospitals in the city (S.R.I., Annual Report 1922, pp. 7–8).
  • 109
    Sheffield Telegraph, 4 June 1932, p. 5.
  • 110
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1932, pp. 1718.
  • 111
    S.C.A., LD1645, Sheffield Trades and Labour Council, minutes of Executive Committee, 21 June 1932.
  • 112
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1932, pp. 89, 1821.
  • 113
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1933, pp. 14, 29.
  • 114
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1935, p. 17. The largest contribution was the £15,000 voted by the Labour-led Leeds City Council.
  • 115
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1935, pp. 3943.
  • 116
    S.C.A., NHS 12/3/6/3, printed brochure, Sheffield Voluntary Hospitals Million Pound Appeal, the City Hall, Tuesday, 19 July 1938.
  • 117
    The National Archives of the U.K.: Public Record Office, MH 58/319, Ellis to the chief medical officer, 5 Aug. 1938.
  • 118
    S.C.A., NHS 12/3/6/3, Sheffield Voluntary Hospitals £1,000,000 Appeal Fund, 8th Annual Report, 1946.
  • 119
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1935, p. 52.
  • 120
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1927, pp. 1718.
  • 121
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1929, p. 146; N.G.H., Annual Report 1920.
  • 122
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1919, p. 121.
  • 123
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1928, pp. 146151.
  • 124
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1925, p. 11.
  • 125
    S.J.H.C., Annual Report 1927, p. 12; S.J.H.C., Annual Report 1934, p. 27; L.G.I., Annual Report 1932, p. 19.
  • 126
    N.G.H., Annual Report 1926 and 1935.
  • 127
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1929.
  • 128
    L.C.A., DE 6529/17, L.R.I. minutes of quarterly meeting, 25 Jan. 1928.
  • 129
    S.R.I., Annual Report 1935, back page advert.
  • 130
    N.G.H., Annual Report 1925.
  • 131
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1929, p. 156.
  • 132
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1932, p. 11; 1933, p. 9.
  • 133
    Nottingham Guardian, 24 Nov. 1924.
  • 134
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1930, p. 29; 1938, p. 31.
  • 135
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1933, p. 12.
  • 136
    S.R.I., Annual Report 1930, p. 9; 1938, p. 16.
  • 137
    S.J.H.C., Annual Report 1924, p. 19; 1925, p. 8.
  • 138
    S.R.H., Annual Report 1931, p. 16.
  • 139
    S.R.I., Annual Report 1929, p. 15.
  • 140
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financing health’, pp. 540542.
  • 141
    Doyle, ‘Labour and hospitals’; Hayes, ‘Counting civil society’.
  • 142
    Gorsky and others, ‘Financial health’, p. 549.
  • 143
    Hayes, ‘Did we really want a National Health Service?
  • 144
    Gorsky and others, Mutualism and Health Care, p. 50.
  • 145
    L.G.I., Annual Report 1935, p. 25.