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Footnotes

  • 1
    F. Thompson, Lark Rise to Candleford: a Trilogy (1947), p. 3.
  • 2
    C. G. Bloxham, The World of Flora Thompson (Oxford, 1998), p. 218.
  • 3
    J. Burnett, D. Vincent and D. Mayall, The Autobiography of the Working Class: an Annotated, Critical Bibliography (3 vols., Brighton, 1984–9), ii. 314. Lark Rise to Candleford is, in fact, described as ‘semi-autobiographical’, but not because of its imaginative and fictitious character; rather because it is ‘less a life history and more an evocative and vivid portrait of rural life’.
  • 4
    B. English, ‘“Lark Rise” and Juniper Hill: a Victorian community in literature and in history’, Victorian Stud., xxix (1985), 734, at pp. 11–14. For an example of this assessment of Lark Rise to Candleford, see P. Horn, Labouring Life in the Victorian Countryside (Dublin, 1976), pp. 18, 241.
  • 5
    G. Lindsay, ‘Thompson, Flora Jane (1876–1947)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004) <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/38059> [accessed 20 Nov. 2009].
  • 6
    M. Lane, Flora Thompson (Ilkley, 1976), p. 3.
  • 7
    English, pp. 1819.
  • 8
    English, pp. 3134.
  • 9
    B. Reay, Rural Englands: Labouring Lives in the 19th Century (Basingstoke, 2004), p. 93.
  • 10
    B. P. Levack, The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe (Harlow, 2006), p. 253.
  • 11
    Levack, pp. 276281.
  • 12
    The history of witchcraft belief in modern England has been illuminated, above all, by the prodigious industry of Owen Davies (see his Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, 1736–1951 (Manchester, 1999); A People Bewitched: Witchcraft and Magic in 19th-Century Somerset (Bruton, 1999); Newspapers and the popular belief in witchcraft and magic in the modern period’, Jour. British Studies, xxxvii (1998), 139165; Cunning-folk in England and Wales during the 18th and 19th centuries’, Rural Hist., viii (1997), 91107; Hag-riding in 19th-century west country England and modern New Foundland: an examination of an experience-centred witchcraft tradition’, Folk Life, xxxv (1996–7), 3653; Murder, Magic, Madness: the Victorian Trials of Dove and the Wizard (Harlow, 2005); Urbanization and the decline of witchcraft: an examination of London’, Jour. Social Hist., xxx (1997), 597617). Other notable contributions to the scholarship on this subject include: R. Hutton, The Triumph of the Moon: a History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft (Oxford, 1999); K. Bell, ‘Remaking magic: the “Wizard of the North” and contested magical mentalities in the mid-19th century magic show’, Magic, Ritual and Witchcraft, iv (2009), 2651, and Breaking modernity's spell – magic and modern history’, Cultural and Social Hist., iv (2007), 115122; and J. Semmens, The Witch of the West: or, The Strange and Wonderful History of Thomasine Blight (Plymouth, 2004). For witchcraft in 19th-century France, see J. Devlin, The Superstitious Mind: French Peasants and the Supernatural in the 19th Century (1987), pp. 100120. Some excellent studies of witchcraft in Europe after the cessation of the witch-trials can be found in Beyond the Witch Trials: Witchcraft and Magic in Enlightenment Europe, ed. O. Davies and W. de Blécourt (Manchester, 2004); and Witchcraft Continued: Popular Magic in Modern Europe, ed. W. de Blécourt and O. Davies (Manchester, 2004).
  • 13
    N. Verdon, Rural Women Workers in 19th-Century England: Gender Work and Wages (Woodbridge, 2002), p. 70. An Historical Atlas of Oxfordshire, ed. K. Tiller and G. Darkes (Oxford, 2010), pp. 116, 134.
  • 14
    K. Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in 16th and 17th Century England (1971); A. Macfarlane, Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: a Regional and Comparative Study (1970).
  • 15
    E. P. Thompson, ‘Anthropology and the discipline of historical context’, Midland Hist., i (1972), 4155, at p. 43; M. Gaskill, ‘The pursuit of reality: recent research into the history of witchcraft’, Historical Jour., li (2008), 10691088, at p. 1085.
  • 16
    J. A. Sharpe, ‘Witchcraft in the early modern Isle of Man’, Cultural and Social Hist., iv (2007), 1128, at pp. 15–16.
  • 17
    R. Hutton, ‘Anthropological and historical approaches to witchcraft: potential for a new collaboration?’, Historical Jour., xlvii (2004), 413434; A. Saunders, A Deed Without a Name: the Witch in Society and History (Oxford, 1995), pp. 1011.
  • 18
    The Handbook of Folklore, ed. G. L. Gomme (1890), p. 39.
  • 19
    J. Demos, Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England (Oxford, 2004), p. xii.
  • 20
    A. G. Hargreaves, Voices from the North African Immigrant Community in France: Immigration and Identity in Beur Fiction (Oxford, 1991), p. 57.
  • 21
    Useful Toil: Autobiographies of Working People from the 1820s to the 1920s, ed. J. Burnett (1974), p. 10.
  • 22
    F. Thompson, p. 266.
  • 23
    For some of the reasons why, see M. Freeman, ‘Folklore collection and social investigation in late-19th and early-20th century England’, Folklore, cxvi (2005), 5165.
  • 24
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, pp. 172173, 278.
  • 25
    C. E. Prior, ‘Deanery of Chipping Norton’, Oxfordshire Archaeological Society Reports for the Year 1905, xlix (Banbury, 1906), 11.
  • 26
    A. Beesley, The History of Banbury: Including Copious Historical and Antiquarian Notices of the Neighbourhood ([1841]), pp. 360, n. 34, 16, n. 34.
  • 27
    W. J. Monk, History of Witney (Witney, 1894), p. 53.
  • 28
    P. Manning, ‘Stray notes on Oxfordshire folklore’, Folklore, xiii (1902), 288295, at pp. 289–92.
  • 29
    Oxfordshire County Record Office, P4/1/MS3/4, ‘Typed notes of Frank Cull’, book Q, sheets 11–12, 42. J. H. Bloom, Folk Lore, Old Customs and Superstitions in Shakespeare Land ([1930]), pp. 9398.
  • 30
    Oxfordshire and District Folklore Society: Annual Record, iii (1951), 4; x (1958), 5; xvii (1965), 4–6.
  • 31
    D. McCormick, Murder by Witchcraft: a Study of the Lower Quinton and Hagley Wood Murders (1968), p. 149.
  • 32
    Folk-lore in Warwickshire’, in Notes & Queries, clxv (16 Sept. 1933), 189. For more remarks in that vein, see M. Harris, Another Kind of Magic (1971), pp. 103105.
  • 33
    Choice Notes from Notes & Queries: Folk Lore (1859), p. 129.
  • 34
    L. Salmon, ‘Folklore in the Kennet valley’, Folklore, xiii (1902), 418429, at p. 427.
  • 35
    R. Northcote, ‘Devonshire folklore, collected among the people near Exeter within the last five or six years’, Folklore, xi (1900), 212219, at pp. 212, 215.
  • 36
    J. Obelkevich, Religion and Rural Society: South Lindsey, 1825–75 (Oxford, 1976), p. 285.
  • 37
    F. Thompson, p. 266.
  • 38
    F. Thompson, p. 504.
  • 39
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, pp. 172173.
  • 40
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, p. 278.
  • 41
    J. A. Sharpe, Instruments of Darkness: Witchcraft in England 1550–1750 (1997), p. 284.
  • 42
    G. Scarre, Witchcraft and Magic in 16th- and 17th-Century Europe (Basingstoke, 1987), p. 62.
  • 43
    M. Gijswijt-Hofstra, B. Lavack and R. Porter, Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: the 18th and 19th Centuries (1999), p. 262.
  • 44
    M. Gaskill, Witchfinders: a 17th-Century English Tragedy (2006), pp. 6566; J. A. Sharpe, Witchcraft in Early Modern England (Harlow, 2001), p. 53.
  • 45
    A. Briggs, The Age of Improvement: 1783–1867 (1974), p. 400.
  • 46
    T. Hardy, The Return of the Native (Wordsworth edn., 1995), pp. 149151.
  • 47
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, p. 193; and see also his ‘Newspapers and the popular belief in witchcraft’, p. 146.
  • 48
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, pp. 274275; Davies, A People Bewitched, p. 153; R. Whitlock, The Folklore of Devon (1977), p. 51; C. Hole, ‘Popular modern ideas on folklore’, Folklore, lxvi (1955), 321329, at p. 328.
  • 49
    For the two briefly commented upon witch-scratchings, see Banbury Guardian and General Advertiser, 6 May 1869; Birmingham Daily Post, 16 June 1863.
  • 50
    Birmingham Daily Post, 1 Nov. 1867; L. Davidoff and C. Hall, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780–1850 (1987), p. 25.
  • 51
    Bicester Herald, 24 Sept. 1875; Banbury Advertiser, 23 Sept. 1875; The Times, 17 Dec. 1875.
  • 52
    K. T. Hoppen, The Mid-Victorian Generation: 1846–86 (Oxford, 1998), p. 114.
  • 53
    J. P. Parry, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain (1993), pp. 117, 122.
  • 54
    N. Gash, Robert Surtees and Early Victorian Society (Oxford, 1993), pp. 98, 105.
  • 55
    Parry, p. 122. Warwickshire had a police force that covered only part of the county (see W. L. M. Lee, A History of Police in England (Montclair, N.J., 1971), p. 305).
  • 56
    Parry, p. 205. Davies, ‘Newspapers and the popular belief in witchcraft’, p. 146.
  • 57
    Hoppen, p. 116; B. Weinberger, ‘The police and the public in mid-19th-century Warwickshire’, in Policing and Punishment in 19th-Century Britain, ed. V. Bailey (1981), pp. 6593, at pp. 67–8.
  • 58
    C. Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750–1900 (3rd edn., Harlow, 2005), p. 119; Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, p. 119.
  • 59
    Davies, A People Bewitched, p. 110; Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, pp. 100104.
  • 60
    The Times, 17 Dec. 1875.
  • 61
    For an example, see Davies, A People Bewitched, p. 54.
  • 62
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, pp. 111112; S. Mitchell, ‘A case of witchcraft assault in early 19th-century England as ostensive action’, in Blécourt and Davies, Witchcraft Continued, pp. 1428, at p. 18.
  • 63
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, p. 112.
  • 64
    On parish constables tolerating prizefighting, see Oxford City and County Chronicle, 22 Aug. 1840.
  • 65
    Oxford City and County Chronicle, 7 Oct. 1837. For an allusion to a similar episode, see J. Clifford, My Reminiscences of Charlbury (Gloucester, [c.1893]), p. 19.
  • 66
    A. H. Wall, ‘Warwickshire folklore’, in Bygone Warwickshire, ed. W. Andrews (Birmingham, 1893), pp. 228247, at p. 243.
  • 67
    Wall, p. 240.
  • 68
    G. Morley, Shakespeare's Greenwood: the Customs of the Country, the Language, the Superstitions (1900), pp. 6465. According to the author, belief in sorcery was especially virulent in Kineton, Tysoe and Long Compton.
  • 69
    G. Morley, ‘Witch-finders in Shakespeare's greenwood’, The Quest: a Quarterly Review, ix (1918), 651657, at p. 657.
  • 70
    Bloom, p. 91.
  • 71
    F. W. Bennett, Tiddyoody Pie (no imprint, [1930]), p. 53.
  • 72
    E. Mordaunt, The Garden of Contentment (1902), pp. 8990.
  • 73
    M. D. Harris, Unknown Warwickshire (1924), p. 64.
  • 74
    S. Stewart, Country Kate (Kineton, 1971), p. 43.
  • 75
    F. Stanley and E. O. Winstedt, ‘A witch, a wizard, and a charm’, Jour. Gypsy Lore Society, new ser., v (1912), 269279, at p. 279.
  • 76
    The Dillen: Memories of a Man of Stratford-upon-Avon, ed. A. Hewins (Oxford, 1984), p. 2.
  • 77
    Hewins , pp. 13, 112.
  • 78
    E. M. P. Cruttwell, Ewelme Past and Present: its History and its People (Penzance, [c.1950]), p. 43.
  • 79
    Village superstitions’, Country Life, xvi (2 July 1904), 2729, at p. 28.
  • 80
    Oxfordshire Village Life: the Diaries of George James Dew (1846–1928), Relieving Officer, ed. P. Horn (Abingdon, 1983), p. 64; Jackson's Oxford Journal (hereafter J.O.J.), 25 Sept. 1869.
  • 81
    W. Ferguson, The Impending Dangers of our Country: or, Hidden Things Brought to Light (1848), p. 57.
  • 82
    R. M. Lawrence, The Magic of the Horseshoe: with other Folklore Notes (1898), p. 57. Horseshoes on Oxfordshire domiciles were also noted by one of the assistants of the folklorist Percy Manning (see Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Top. Oxon. d. 192, Percy Manning, ‘Folk-lore miscellania’, W. R. Haliday, ‘A report of an expedition on May 19th and May 26th to Stanton Harcourt’, p. 327). See also Oxford, Pitt Rivers Museum, accession no. 1894.58.4, ‘Imitation horse shoe of large size used in a cottage to keep off witches’.
  • 83
    A. Parker, ‘Oxfordshire village folklore (1840–1900)’, Folklore, xxiv (1913), 7491, at p. 83; and see also M. K. Ashby, Joseph Ashby of Tysoe, 1859–1919: a Study of English Village Life (1974), pp. 1516; J.O.J., 25 Sept. 1869; Horn, pp. 5960; A. Woodward, Memories of Brailes: a South Warwickshire Village (Shipston-on-Stour, 1988), p. 84.
  • 84
    C. Bloxham, Folklore of Oxfordshire (Stroud, 2005), pp. 7879; J. Kibble, Charming Charlbury: a Wychwood Gem. Gleanings of an Oxfordshire Countryside, with Notes on Chipping Norton, Churchill and Kingham (Charlbury, 1930), p. 73.
  • 85
    T. Barham, Witchcraft in the Thames Valley: Traditional Witchcraft Tales of the Thames Valley (Bourne End, 1973), p. 54.
  • 86
    M. Harris, A Kind of Magic: an Oxfordshire Childhood in the 1920s (Oxford, 1985), p. 114.
  • 87
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, pp. 215221.
  • 88
    J. Dunkin, Oxfordshire Anecdotes, ii: Bicester ([Bromley, 1826]), pp. 1011 (original emphasis).
  • 89
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, pp. 5462; R. Porter, Health for Sale: Quackery in England, 1660–1850 (Manchester, 1989), p. 16. For the reason why the 1815 act failed, see I. Loudon, Medical Care and the General Practitioner, 1750–1850 (Oxford, 1986), pp. 181183.
  • 90
    The Lancet, 16 Apr. 1864, p. 446.
  • 91
    J.O.J., 26 June 1819.
  • 92
    J.O.J., 31 July 1819.
  • 93
    It was common for the trade to run in families (see Davies, Popular Magic, p. 72).
  • 94
    Kelly's Post Office Directory of Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire (1869), pp. 35, 226; William Wheelan and Co., History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Northamptonshire (1849), p. 616.
  • 95
    J.O.J., 10 July 1830.
  • 96
    J.O.J., 20 Feb. 1864.
  • 97
    J.O.J., 8 Dec. 1855.
  • 98
    The Times, 17 Dec. 1875.
  • 99
    The Doctor, vi (1 March 1876).
  • 100
    Davies, Popular Magic, pp. 8688.
  • 101
    Wheelan and Co., p. 615; Kelly's Post Office Directory of Northamptonshire (1869), p. 35.
  • 102
    J.O.J., 8 Dec. 1855; Manning, ‘Stray notes on Oxfordshire folklore’, p. 290.
  • 103
    Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, p. 269; R. Hutton, The Triumph of the Moon: a History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft (Oxford, 2001), p. 110.
  • 104
    Stanley and Winstedt, pp. 274279.
  • 105
    Bennett, p. 80; see also Horn, pp. 5960.
  • 106
    E. M. Wright, Rustic Speech and Folk-Lore (1913), pp. 231232.
  • 107
    G. Heuman, E. Corbett and A. Antrobus, ‘Scraps of English folklore, xvii: Oxfordshire’, Folklore, xl (1929), 7879.
  • 108
    Bennett, pp. 9091.
  • 109
    F. Thompson, p. 504.
  • 110
    F. Thompson, p. 266.
  • 111
    J. Favret-Saada, Deadly Words: Witchcraft in the Bocage, trans. C. Cullen (Cambridge, 1980), p. 9.
  • 112
    Favret-Saada, pp. 8182.
  • 113
    Favret-Saada, pp. 64–5.
  • 114
    Favret-Saada, p. 11. ‘His’ is used here because, in the Bocage, most supposed witches are men.
  • 115
    Favret-Saada, p. 64.
  • 116
    A. Ross, The Folklore of the Scottish Highlands (1976), pp. 63, 64, 69–70, 90.
  • 117
    M. Simmons, Witchcraft in the Southwest: Spanish and Indian Supernaturalism on the Rio Grande (Lincoln, Neb., 1980), pp. 118, 166.
  • 118
    U. A. Casal, ‘The goblin fox and badger and other witch animals of Japan’, Folklore Studies, xviii (1959), 193, at p. 76; R. Howard, ‘Emotional psychoses among dark-skinned races’, Trans. Royal Soc. Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, iii (1910), 323339, at p. 324.
  • 119
    N. E. Levine, ‘Belief and explanation in Nyinba women's witchcraft’, Man, new ser., xvii (1982), 259274, at p. 262.
  • 120
    G. Dwyer, The Divine and the Demonic: Supernatural Affliction and its Treatment in North India (2003), pp. 75, 80.
  • 121
    Horn, p. 64.
  • 122
    Stanley and Winstedt, p. 274.
  • 123
    Cruttwell, p. 43.
  • 124
    Bloom, p. 96.
  • 125
    McCormick, p. 144.
  • 126
    Harris, Another Kind of Magic, p. 105.
  • 127
    Bodl. Libr., MS. Top. Oxon. d. 192, Percy Manning, ‘Folk-lore miscellania’, pp. 258263. The following quotations are from this source.
  • 128
    Gomme, pp. 167168.
  • 129
    M. Freeman, Social Investigation and Rural England, 1870–1914 (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 6263.
  • 130
    Bennett, pp. 24.
  • 131
    Bennett, p. 82.
  • 132
    Bennett, pp. 8485.
  • 133
    Ferguson, p. 56.
  • 134
    Harris, Another Kind of Magic, pp. 103105.
  • 135
    Parker, p. 84; Monk, p. 53.
  • 136
    ‘Typed notes of Frank Cull’, book Q, sheets 11–12, 42.
  • 137
    ‘Typed notes of Frank Cull’, book Q, sheets 11–12, 42.
  • 138
    In this respect the Oxfordshire witch tales seem to differ from the Somerset tales considered by Owen Davies in A People Bewitched, p. 5.
  • 139
    Manning, ‘Stray notes on Oxfordshire folklore’, p. 290.
  • 140
    F. Thompson, p. 266; Kibble, p. 71.
  • 141
    Ashby, pp. 1011, noted how her grandmother knew the ‘graver associations’ of her neighbours in Tysoe, including ‘alleged witchcraft’.
  • 142
    F. Thompson, p. 266.
  • 143
    E. Wright, ‘Scraps of English folklore: Oxfordshire’, Folklore, xx (1909), 218219, at p. 219.
  • 144
    Obelkevich, p. 276.
  • 145
    D. Green, Country Neighbours (1948), p. 18.
  • 146
    F. Thompson, pp. 503504.
  • 147
    Hutton, Triumph of the Moon, p. 117.
  • 148
    On literary protests against belief in witchcraft, see V. D. Dickerson, Victorian Ghosts in the Noontide: Women Writers and the Supernatural (Columbia, Mo., 1996), pp. 121122.