This article provides an overview of the attempts to address a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)-free zone in the Middle East as mandated by the 2010 nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. The article outlines regional nuclear programmes in Egypt, Israel, Iran, Iraq and Syria, and the evolution of nuclear weapon-free zones and NPT politics. The article further proposes a set of recommendations for what might constitute a nuclear weapon-free zone treaty, including interim measures that would support the establishment of the Middle East WMD-free zone, drawing on historical precedent from relevant cases.