• 1
    Mostashari F, Bunning ML, Kitsutani PT et al. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet2001; 358: 261264.
  • 2
    Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, Lanciotti RS, Bode AV, Campbell GL. Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis2005; 11: 11741179.
  • 3
    Pogodina VV, Frolova MP, Malenko GV et al. Study on West Nile virus persistence in monkeys. Arch Virol1983; 75: 7186.
  • 4
    Tonry JH, Xiao S-Y, Siirin M, Chen H, Travassos APA, Tesh RB. Persistent shedding of West Nile virus in the urine of experimentally infected hamsters. Am J Trop Med Hyg2005; 73: 320324.
  • 5
    Murray K, Walker C, Herrington E et al. Persistent infection with West Nile virus years after initial infection. J Infect Dis2010; 201: 24.
  • 6
    Papa A, Bakonyi T, Xanthopoulou K, Vasquez A, Tenorio A, Nowotny N. Genetic characterization of West Nile virus lineage 2 Greece, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis2011; 17: 920922.
  • 7
    Burt FJ, Grobbelaar AA, Leman PA, Anthony FS, Gibson GV, Swanepoel R. Phylogenetic relationships of southern African West Nile virus isolates. Emerg Infect Dis2002; 8: 820826.
  • 8
    Bakonyi T, Ivanics E, Erdélyi K et al. Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis2006; 12: 618623.
  • 9
    Valiakos G, Touloudi A, Iacovakis C et al. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus lineage 2 in sedentary wild birds (Eurasian magpie), Greece, 2010. Euro Surveill2011;16. pii: 19862.
  • 10
    Sirbu A, Ceianu CS, Panculescu-Gatej RI et al. Outbreak of West Nile virus infection in humans, Romania, July to October 2010. Euro Surveill2011;16. pii: 19762.
  • 11
    Autorino GL, Battisti A, Deubel V et al. West Nile virus epidemic in horses, Tuscany region, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis2002; 8: 13721378.
  • 12
    Rizzo C, Vescio F, Declich S et al. West Nile virus transmission with human cases in Italy, August–September 2009. Euro Surveill2009;14. pii: 19347.
  • 13
    Barzon L, Pacenti M, Cusinato R et al. Human cases of West Nile Virus infection in north-eastern Italy, 15 June to 15 November 2010. Euro Surveill2011;16. pii: 19949.
  • 14
    Bagnarelli P, Marinelli K, Trotta D et al. Human case of autochthonous West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in Italy, September 2011. Euro Surveill2011;16. pii: 20002.
  • 15
    Savini G, Capelli G, Monaco F et al . Evidence of West Nile virus lineage 2 circulation in Northern Italy. Vet Microbiol2012; 158: 267273.
  • 16
    Rizzo C, Salcuni P, Nicoletti L et al. Epidemiological surveillance of West Nile neuroinvasive diseases in Italy, 2008 to 2011. Euro Surveill 2012; 17: pii: 20172.
  • 17
    Tanaka M. Rapid identification of flavivirus using the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods1993; 41: 311322.
  • 18
    Posada D, Crandall KA. MODELTEST:testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics1998; 14: 817818.
  • 19
    Swofford DL. PAUP*: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods), version 4. Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer Associates, 2002.
  • 20
    Romi R, Pontuale G, Ciufolini MG et al. Potential vectors of West Nile Virus following an equine disease outbreak in Italy. Med Vet Entomol2004; 18: 1419.
  • 21
    Istituto G. Caporale. West Nile Disease in Italia. Bollettino Riassuntivo WND In Italia 2011, 18 Aprile 2012.