These authors contributed equally to this work.
Modulation of potential respiratory pathogens by pH1N1 viral infection
Article first published online: 20 NOV 2012
© 2012 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Volume 19, Issue 10, pages 930–935, October 2013
How to Cite
Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19: 930–935
- Issue published online: 17 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 20 NOV 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 27 SEP 2012 11:43AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 17 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 25 APR 2012
- Cell motility;
While much effort has been made to characterize influenza A pdm09 virus (pH1N1), the flu that was responsible for the fourth influenza pandemic, there is a lack of study on the composition of bacteria that lead to secondary infection. In this study, we recruited pneumonia patients with and without pH1N1 infection and characterized their oropharyngeal microbiota by the unbiased high-throughput sequencing method. While there were no significant differences in common bacterial pneumonia-causative agents (Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species), previously unreported Pseudomonas species equipped with chemotaxis and flagellar assembly genes significantly increased (>20-fold) in the pH1N1-infected group. Bacillus and Ralstonia species that also increased significantly (5–10-fold) were also found to possess similar signaling and motility genes. In contrast, no such genes were found in oral commensal Prevotella, Veillonella and Neisseria species, which decreased significantly, or in either Acinetobacter or 10 out of 21 Streptococcus species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our results support the notion that pH1N1 infection provides a niche for previously unnoticed potential respiratory pathogens that were able to access the lower respiratory tract with weakened immunity.