• 1
    World Health Organization. Prevalence and incidence of selected sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and Trichomonas vaginalis: methods and results used by WHO to generate 2005 estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010; 5.
  • 2
    NCSTD. Epidemiologic reports of syphilis and gonorrheae case reports in China. Bull STI Prev Control 2012; 26: 918.
  • 3
    Kingston M, French P, Goh B et al. UK National Guidelines on the Management of Syphilis 2008. Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 729740.
  • 4
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010; 59 (RR-12)
  • 5
    Bai ZG, Wang B, Yang K et al. Azithromycin versus penicillin G benzathine for early syphilis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 6: CD007270.
  • 6
    Martin IE, Gu W, Yang Y, Tsang RS. Macrolide resistance and molecular types of Treponema pallidum causing primary syphilis in Shanghai China. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 515521.
  • 7
    Wu H, Chang SY, Lee NY et al. Evaluation of macrolide resistance and enhanced molecular typing of Treponema pallidum in patients with syphilis in Taiwan: a prospective multicenter study. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 22992304.
  • 8
    Liu H, Rodes B, Chen CY, Steiner B. New tests for syphilis: rational design of a PCR method for detection of Treponema pallidum in clinical specimens using unique regions of the DNA polymerase I gene. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 19411946.
  • 9
    Lukehart SA, Godornes C, Molini BJ et al. Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum in the United States and Ireland. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 154158.
  • 10
    Tipple C, McClure MO, Taylor GP. High prevalence of macrolide resistant Treponema pallidum strains in a London centre. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: 486488.
  • 11
    Mitchell SJ, Engelman J, Kent CK, Lukehart SA, Godornes C, Klausner JD. Azithromycin-resistant syphilis infection: San Francisco, California, 2000–2004. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 337345.
  • 12
    Van Damme K, Behets F, Ravelomanana N et al. Evaluation of azithromycin resistance in Treponema pallidum specimens from Madagascar. Sex Transm Dis 2009; 36: 775776.
  • 13
    Radyowijati A, Haak H. Improving antibiotic use in low-income countries: an overview of evidence on determinants. Soc Sci Med 2003; 57: 733744.
  • 14
    Lipsitch M, Samore MH. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerg Infect Dis 2002; 8: 347354.
  • 15
    Shanghai Daily. Antibiotics use 10 times higher among Chinese. December 17, 2010. [accessed July 18, 2012].
  • 16
    Peng RR, Yin YP, Wei WH et al. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum causing early syphilis in China: a cross-sectional study. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 4245.
  • 17
    Dai T, Li K, Lu H, Gu X, Wang Q, Zhou P. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum: a 5-Year Surveillance in Shanghai China. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 36743677.
  • 18
    Martin IE, Tsang RSW, Sutherland K et al. Molecular characterization of syphilis in patients in Canada: azithromycin resistance and detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in whole-blood samples versus ulcerative swabs. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 16681673.
  • 19
    Pillay A, Liu H, Ebrahim S et al. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum in South Africa: cross-sectional studies. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 256258.
  • 20
    Ghanem KG, Workowski KA. Management of adult syphilis. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(Suppl 3): S110128.
  • 21
    Zhou P, Li K, Lu H et al. Azithromycin treatment failure among primary and secondary syphilis patients in Shanghai. Sex Transm Dis 2010; 37: 726729.