• 1
    Deurenberg RH, Stobberingh EE. The molecular evolution of hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Mol Med 2009; 9: 100115.
  • 2
    Rolo J, Miragaia M, Turlej-Rogacka A et al. High genetic diversity among community-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe: results from a multicenter study. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e34768.
  • 3
    Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton–Valentine leukocidin. Lab Invest 2007; 87: 39.
  • 4
    Boakes E, Kearns AM, Ganner M, Perry C, Hill RL, Ellington MJ. Distinct bacteriophages encoding Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) among international methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones harboring PVL. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 684692.
  • 5
    Monecke S, Coombs G, Shore AC et al. A field guide to pandemic, epidemic and sporadic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e17936.
  • 6
    Moremi N, Mshana SE, Kamugisha E et al. Predominance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST88 and new ST1797 causing wound infection and abscesses. J Infect Dev Ctries 2012; 6: 620625.
  • 7
    Hetem DJ, Westh H, Boye K, Jarløv JO, Bonten MJ, Bootsma MC. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012; 67: 17751780.
  • 8
    Cirkovic I, Sorum M, Radenkovic D, Svabic VlahovicM, Larsen AR. National surveillance reveals the first findings of Panton Valentine leukocidin positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Serbia. J Med Microbiol 2012; 342344.
  • 9
    Orendi JM, Coetzee N, Ellington MJ et al. Community and nosocomial transmission of Panton–Valentine leucocidin-positive community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: implications for healthcare. J Hosp Infect 2010; 75: 258264.
  • 10
    Robinson DA, Kearns AM, Holmes A et al. Re-emergence of early pandemic Staphylococcus aureus as a community-acquired meticillin-resistant clone. Lancet 2005; 365: 12561258.
  • 11
    Yamamoto T, Nishiyama A, Takano T et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: community transmission, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. J Infect Chemother 2010; 16: 225254.
  • 12
    Ribeiro A, Dias C, Silva-Carvalho MC et al. First report of infection with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in South America. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 19851988.
  • 13
    Rozenbaum R, Sampaio MG, Batista GS et al. The first report in Brazil of severe infection caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Braz J Med Biol Res 2009; 8: 756760.
  • 14
    Ali H, Nash JQ, Kearns AM et al. Outbreak of a South West Pacific clone Panton–Valentine leucocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a UK neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 2012; 80: 293298.
  • 15
    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: nineteenth Informational Supplement M100-S19. Wayne, PA: CLSI, 2009.
  • 16
    Struelens MJ, Bax R, Deplano A, Quint WG, Van Belkum A. Concordant clonal delineation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by macrorestriction analysis and polymerase chain reaction genome fingerprinting. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 19641970.
  • 17
    Oliveira DC, de Lencastre H. Multiplex PCR strategy for rapid identification of structural types and variants of the mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 21552161.
  • 18
    Lina G, Piémont Y, Godail-Gamot F et al. Involvement of Panton–Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29: 11281132.
  • 19
    Enright MC, Day NP, Davies CE, Peacock SJ, Spratt BG. Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 10081015.
  • 20
    Huijsdens XW, van Santen-Verheuvel MG, Spalburg E et al. Multiple cases of familial transmission of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 29942996.
  • 21
    Pérez-Roth E, Alcoba-Flórez J, López-Aguilar C, Gutiérrez-González I, Rivero-Pérez B, Méndez-Alvarez S. Familial furunculosis associated with community-acquired leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST152. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 329332.
  • 22
    Pozzi Langhi SA, Robinson JO, Pearson JC, Christiansen KJ, Coombs GW, Murray RJ. Intrafamilial transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15: 16871689.
  • 23
    Scribel LV, Silva-Carvalho MC, Souza RR et al. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying SCCmecIV in a university hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2009; 65: 457461.
  • 24
    Chatzakis E, Scoulica E, Papageorgiou N, Maraki S, Samonis G, Galanakis E. Infant colonization by Staphylococcus aureus: role of maternal carriage. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 30: 11111117.
  • 25
    Catho G, Gillet Y, Dumitrescu O et al. Intrafamilial transmission of Staphylococcus aureus Panton–Valentine leukocidin responsible for two cases of neonatal necrotizing pneumonia. Arch Pediatr 2011; 18: 10901094.
  • 26
    Carré N, Herbreteau N, Askeur N et al. Outbreak of skin infections due to Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton–Valentine leukocidin genes in pupils and their relatives. Med Mal Infect 2011; 41: 364371.
  • 27
    Frick MA, Moraga-Llop FA, Bartolomé R et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2010; 28: 675679.
  • 28
    Sanchini A, Campanile F, Monaco M et al. DNA microarray-based characterisation of Panton–Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 30: 13991408.
  • 29
    Aschbacher R, Pichon B, Spoladore G et al. High clonal heterogeneity of Panton–Valentine leukocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from skin and soft-tissue infections in the Province of Bolzano, Northern Italy. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2012; 39: 522525.
  • 30
    Mammina C, Calà C, Bonura C et al. Polyclonal non multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical cases of infection occurring in Palermo, Italy, during a one-year surveillance period. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2012; 11: 17.
  • 31
    Giuffrè M, Cipolla D, Bonura C et al. Epidemic spread of ST1-MRSA-IVa in a neonatal intensive care unit, Italy. BMC Pediatr 2012; 12: 64.
  • 32
    Carvalho KS, Mamizuka EM, Gontijo Filho PP. Methicillin/oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a hospital and public health threat in Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis 2010; 14: 7176.
  • 33
    Thomsen I, McKenna BD, Saye EJ, Jimenez N, Edwards KM, Creech CB. Molecular distinctions exist between community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and disease-associated isolates in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011; 5: 418421.