• 1
    Bogaert D, De Groot R, Hermans PW. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease. Lancet Infect Dis 2004; 4: 144154.
  • 2
    McCool TL, Weiser JN. Limited role of antibody in clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a murine model of colonization. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 58075813.
  • 3
    Lu YJ, Gross J, Bogaert D et al. Interleukin-17A mediates acquired immunity to pneumococcal colonization. PLoS Pathog 2008; 4: e1000159.
  • 4
    Goldblatt D, Hussain M, Andrews N et al. Antibody responses to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults: a longitudinal household study. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 387393.
  • 5
    McCool TL, Cate TR, Tuomanen EI, Adrian P, Mitchell TJ, Weiser JN. Serum immunoglobulin G response to candidate vaccine antigens during experimental human pneumococcal colonization. Infect Immun 2003; 71: 57245732.
  • 6
    Malley R, Lipsitch M, Bogaert D et al. Serum antipneumococcal antibodies and pneumococcal colonization in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect Dis 2007; 196: 928935.
  • 7
    Soininen A, Pursiainen H, Kilpi T, Kayhty H. Natural development of antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides depends on the serotype: association with pneumococcal carriage and acute otitis media in young children. J Infect Dis 2001; 184: 569576.
  • 8
    Rapola S, Jantti V, Haikala R et al. Natural development of antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A, pneumococcal surface adhesin A, and pneumolysin in relation to pneumococcal carriage and acute otitis media. J Infect Dis 2000; 182: 11461152.
  • 9
    Tai SS. Streptococcus pneumoniae protein vaccine candidates: properties, activities and animal studies. Crit Rev Microbiol 2006; 32: 139153.
  • 10
    Dagan R, Givon-Lavi N, Greenberg D, Fritzell B, Siegrist CA. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae shortly before vaccination with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine causes serotype-specific hyporesponsiveness in early infancy. J Infect Dis 2010; 201: 15701579.
  • 11
    Turner P, Turner C, Jankhot A et al. A longitudinal study of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a cohort of infants and their mothers on the Thailand-Myanmar border. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e38271.
  • 12
    Turner C, Turner P, Carrara V, Burgoine K. Tha Ler Htoo S, Watthanaworawit W et al. High Rates of Pneumonia in Children under Two Years of Age in a South East Asian Refugee Population. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e54026.
  • 13
    O'Brien KL, Nohynek H. Report from a WHO Working Group: standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003; 22: e1e11.
  • 14
    Adegbola RA, Hill PC, Secka O et al. Serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in The Gambia 1996-2003. Trop Med Int Health 2006; 11: 11281135.
  • 15
    Marchese RD, Puchalski D, Miller P et al. Optimization and validation of a multiplex, electrochemiluminescence-based detection assay for the quantitation of immunoglobulin G serotype-specific antipneumococcal antibodies in human serum. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2009; 16: 387396.
  • 16
    Goldblatt D, Plikaytis BD, Akkoyunlu M et al. Establishment of a new human pneumococcal standard reference serum, 007sp. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2011; 18: 17281736.
  • 17
    Wernette CM, Frasch CE, Madore D et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of human antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2003; 10: 514519.
  • 18
    Jodar L, Butler J, Carlone G et al. Serological criteria for evaluation and licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations for use in infants. Vaccine 2003; 21: 32653272.
  • 19
    Scott JA, Ojal J, Ashton L, Muhoro A, Burbidge P, Goldblatt D. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine given shortly after birth stimulates effective antibody concentrations and primes immunological memory for sustained infant protection. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53: 663670.
  • 20
    Holmlund E, Quiambao B, Ollgren J, Nohynek H, Kayhty H. Development of natural antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A, pneumococcal surface adhesin A and pneumolysin in Filipino pregnant women and their infants in relation to pneumococcal carriage. Vaccine 2006; 24: 5765.
  • 21
    Francis JP, Richmond PC, Pomat WS et al. Maternal antibodies to pneumolysin but not to pneumococcal surface protein A delay early pneumococcal carriage in high-risk Papua New Guinean infants. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2009; 16: 16331638.
  • 22
    Mbelle N, Huebner RE, Wasas AD, Kimura A, Chang I, Klugman KP. Immunogenicity and impact on nasopharyngeal carriage of a nonavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis 1999; 180: 11711176.
  • 23
    Lebon A, Verkaik NJ, Labout JA et al. Natural antibodies against several pneumococcal virulence proteins in children during the pre-pneumococcal-vaccine era: the generation R study. Infect Immun 2011; 79: 16801687.
  • 24
    Rapola S, Jantti V, Eerola M, Makela PH, Kayhty H, Kilpi T. Anti-PsaA and the risk of pneumococcal AOM and carriage. Vaccine 2003; 21: 36083613.
  • 25
    Roche AM, Weiser JN. Identification of the targets of cross-reactive antibodies induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization. Infect Immun 2010; 78: 22312239.
  • 26
    Laine C, Mwangi T, Thompson CM, Obiero J, Lipsitch M, Scott JA. Age-specific immunoglobulin g (IgG) and IgA to pneumococcal protein antigens in a population in coastal Kenya. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 33313335.
  • 27
    Gianfaldoni C, Censini S, Hilleringmann M et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus subunits protect mice against lethal challenge. Infect Immun 2007; 75: 10591062.
  • 28
    Moschioni M, Donati C, Muzzi A et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains 3 rlrA pilus variants that are clonally related. J Infect Dis 2008; 197: 888896.
  • 29
    Turner P, Melchiorre S, Moschioni M et al. Assessment of Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus islet-1 prevalence in carried and transmitted isolates from mother-infant pairs on the Thailand-Burma border. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 970975.
  • 30
    Lipsitch M, Whitney CG, Zell E, Kaijalainen T, Dagan R, Malley R. Are anticapsular antibodies the primary mechanism of protection against invasive pneumococcal disease? PLoS Med 2005; 2: e15.