SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Ullmann AJ, Cornely OA, Donnelly JP et al. ESCMID guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: developing European guidelines in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18(suppl 7): 18.
  • 2
    Cornely OA, Bassetti M, Calandra T et al. ESCMID guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: non-neutropenic adult patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18(suppl 7): 1937.
  • 3
    Cuenca-Estrella M, Verweij PE, Arendrup MC et al. ESCMID guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: diagnostic procedures. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18(suppl 7): 918.
  • 4
    Hope WW, Castagnola E, Groll AH et al. ESCMID guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: prevention and management of invasive infections in neonates and children caused by Candida spp. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18(suppl 7): 3852.
  • 5
    Lortholary O, Petrikkos G, Akova M et al. ESCMID guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18(suppl 7): 6877.
  • 6
    Ullmann AJ, Akova M, Herbrecht R et al. ESCMID guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: adults with haematological malignancies and after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18(suppl 7): 5367.
  • 7
    Arendrup MC, Boekhout T, Akova M et al. ESCMID/ECMM Joint clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of rare invasive yeast infections. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12360 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 8
    Cornely OA, Arikan-Akdagli S, Dannaoui E et al. ESCMID and ECMM joint clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; in press.
  • 9
    Cuenca-Estrella M, Bassetti M, Lass-Florl C, Racil Z, Richardson M, Rogers TR. Detection and investigation of invasive mould disease. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 66(suppl 1): i15i24.
  • 10
    Lass-Florl C. Zygomycosis: conventional laboratory diagnosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15(suppl 5): 6065.
  • 11
    Jensen HE, Salonen J, Ekfors TO. The use of immunohistochemistry to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of systemic mycoses in patients with haematological malignancies. J Pathol 1997; 181: 100105.
  • 12
    Revankar SG, Sutton DA. Melanized fungi in human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010; 23: 884928.
  • 13
    Richardson M, Ellis M. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis. Hosp Med 2000; 61: 610614.
  • 14
    Balajee SA, Borman AM, Brandt ME et al. Sequence-based identification of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucorales species in the clinical mycology laboratory: where are we and where should we go from here? J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 877884.
  • 15
    Arendrup MC, Cuenca-Estrella M, Lass-Florl C, Hope W. EUCAST technical note on the EUCAST definitive document EDef 7.2: method for the determination of broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents for yeasts EDef 7.2 (EUCAST-AFST). Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: E246E247.
  • 16
    Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi; approved standard-second edition. CLSI document M38-A2. Wayne, PA: Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 2008.
  • 17
    Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing (AFST) of the ESCMID European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). EUCAST Technical Note on the method for the determination of broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents for conidia-forming moulds. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008; 14: 982984.
  • 18
    Cuenca-Estrella M, Gomez-Lopez A, Mellado E, Monzon A, Buitrago MJ, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. Activity profile in vitro of micafungin against Spanish clinical isolates of common and emerging species of yeasts and molds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53: 21922195.
  • 19
    Cuenca-Estrella M, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. The current role of the reference procedures by CLSI and EUCAST in the detection of resistance to antifungal agents in vitro. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2010; 8: 267276.
  • 20
    Cuetara MS, Alhambra A, Moragues MD, Gonzalez-Elorza E, Ponton J, del Palacio A. Detection of (1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-β-d-glucan as an adjunct to diagnosis in a mixed population with uncommon proven invasive fungal diseases or with an unusual clinical presentation. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2009; 16: 423426.
  • 21
    Koo S, Bryar JM, Page JH, Baden LR, Marty FM. Diagnostic performance of the (1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-β-d-glucan assay for invasive fungal disease. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 16501659.
  • 22
    Onishi A, Sugiyama D, Kogata Y et al. Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-β-d-glucan for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 715.
  • 23
    Buitrago MJ, Aguado JM, Ballen A et al. Efficacy of DNA amplification in tissue biopsy samples to improve the detection of invasive fungal disease. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19: E271E277.
  • 24
    Lau A, Chen S, Sorrell T et al. Development and clinical application of a panfungal PCR assay to detect and identify fungal DNA in tissue specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2007; 45: 380385.
  • 25
    Marchetti O, Lamoth F, Mikulska M, Viscoli C, Verweij P, Bretagne S. ECIL recommendations for the use of biological markers for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases in leukemic patients and hematopoietic SCT recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 2012; 47: 846854.
  • 26
    Bogle MA, Rabkin MS, Joseph AK. Mohs micrographic surgery for the eradication of phaeohyphomycosis of the hand. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30: 231233.
  • 27
    Diaz M, Puente R, Trevino MA. Response of long-running Alternaria alternata infection to fluconazole. Lancet 1990; 336: 513.
  • 28
    Farina C, Gotti E, Mouniee D, Boiron P, Goglio A. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum subcutaneous infection in a kidney-transplanted patient successfully treated by surgery. Transpl Infect Dis 2007; 9: 253255.
  • 29
    Gene J, Azon-Masoliver A, Guarro J et al. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria longipes in an immunosuppressed patient. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 27742776.
  • 30
    Guarro J, Alves SH, Gene J et al. Two cases of subcutaneous infection due to Phaeoacremonium spp. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 13321336.
  • 31
    Machet L, Machet MC, Maillot F et al. Cutaneous alternariosis occurring in a patient treated with local intrarectal corticosteroids. Acta Derm Venereol 1995; 75: 328329.
  • 32
    Salido R, Linares-Sicilia MJ, Garnacho-Saucedo G et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria infectoria in a renal transplant patient: surgical treatment with no long-term relapse. Rev Iberoam Micol 2012; Epub ahead of print.
  • 33
    Gugnani HC, Ramesh V, Sood N et al. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladosporium oxysporum and its treatment with potassium iodide. Med Mycol 2006; 44: 285288.
  • 34
    Pereiro M Jr, Pereiro Ferreiros MM, De Hoog GS, Toribio J. Cutaneous infection caused by Alternaria in patients receiving tacrolimus. Med Mycol 2004; 42: 277282.
  • 35
    Suh MK, Lee YH. Infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. Korean J Med Mycol 2005; 10: 7782.
  • 36
    Torres-Rodriguez JM, Gonzalez MP, Corominas JM, Pujol RM. Successful thermotherapy for a subcutaneous infection due to Alternaria alternata in a renal transplant recipient. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141: 11711173.
  • 37
    Yang Y, Hu Y, Zhang J et al. A refractory case of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea monophora with improvement by photodynamic therapy. Med Mycol 2012; 50: 649653.
  • 38
    Badali H, De Hoog GS, Curfs-Breuker I, Andersen B, Meis JF. In vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against 70 clinical and environmental isolates of Alternaria species. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 63: 12951297.
  • 39
    Boyce RD, Deziel PJ, Otley CC et al. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria species in transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2010; 12: 242250.
  • 40
    Foulet F, Duvoux C, de Bièvre C, Hézode C, Bretagne S. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea botryosa in a liver transplant recipient successfully treated with itraconazole. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29: 689690.
  • 41
    Halaby T, Boots H, Vermeulen A et al. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria in a renal transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 19521955.
  • 42
    Miele PS, Levy CS, Smith MA et al. Primary cutaneous fungal infections in solid organ transplantation: a case series. Am J Transplant 2002; 2: 678683.
  • 43
    Mirkin LD. Alternaria alternata infection of skin in a 6-year-old boy with aplastic anemia. Pediatr Pathol 1994; 14: 757761.
  • 44
    Yehia M, Thomas M, Pilmore H, Van Der MW, Dittmer I. Subcutaneous black fungus (phaeohyphomycosis) infection in renal transplant recipients: three cases. Transplantation 2004; 77: 140142.
  • 45
    Agger WA, Andes D, Burgess JW. Exophiala jeanselmei infection in a heart transplant recipient successfully treated with oral terbinafine. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: e112e115.
  • 46
    Altomare GF, Capella GL, Boneschi V, Viviani MA. Effectiveness of terbinafine in cutaneous alternariosis. Br J Dermatol 2000; 142: 840841.
  • 47
    Bartolome B, Valks R, Fraga J, Buendía V, Fernández-Herrera J, García-Díez A. Cutaneous alternariosis due to Alternaria chlamydospora after bone marrow transplantation. Acta Derm Venereol 1999; 79: 244.
  • 48
    Calabro G, Nino M, Gallo L, Scalvenzi M. Cutaneous alternariosis in a kidney transplantation recipient: report of a case. J Dermatol Treat 2008; 19: 246248.
  • 49
    Calista D, Leardini M, Arcangeli F. Subcutaneous Exophiala jeanselmei infection in a heart transplant patient. Eur J Dermatol 2003; 13: 489.
  • 50
    Ioannidou DJ, Stefanidou MP, Maraki SG, Panayiotides JG, Tosca AD. Cutaneous alternariosis in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Int J Dermatol 2000; 39: 293295.
  • 51
    Ioannidou D, Maraki S, Krüger Krasagakis S et al. Cutaneous alternariosis revealing acute myeloid leukaemia in an adult patient. Mycoses 2004; 47: 227230.
  • 52
    Lo Cascio G, Ligozzi M, Maccacaro L, Fontana R. Utility of molecular identification in opportunistic mycotic infections: a case of cutaneous Alternaria infectoria infection in a cardiac transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 53345336.
  • 53
    Magina S, Lisboa C, Santos P et al. Cutaneous alternariosis by Alternaria chartarum in a renal transplanted patient. Br J Dermatol 2000; 142: 12611262.
  • 54
    Merino E, Bañuls J, Boix V et al. Relapsing cutaneous alternariosis in a kidney transplant recipient cured with liposomal amphotericin B. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2003; 22: 5153.
  • 55
    Pastor FJ, Guarro J. Alternaria infections: laboratory diagnosis and relevant clinical features. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008; 14: 734746.
  • 56
    Rammaert B, Aguilar C, Bougnoux ME et al. Success of posaconazole therapy in a heart transplanted patient with Alternaria infectoria cutaneous infection. Med Mycol 2012; 50: 518521.
  • 57
    Tambasco D, D'Ettorre M, Bracaglia R et al. A suspected squamous cell carcinoma in a renal transplant recipient revealing a rare cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis by Alternaria infectoria. J Cutan Med Surg 2012; 16: 131134.
  • 58
    Zhang YQ, Xu XG, Li FQ, Wei H, Chen HD, Li YH. Co-existence of cutaneous alternariosis and tinea corporis in a renal transplant recipient. Med Mycol 2011; 49: 435438.
  • 59
    Ahmed AOA, van Leeuwen W, Fahal A, van de Sande W, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A. Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis: a neglected infectious burden. Lancet Infect Dis 2004; 4: 566574.
  • 60
    Al-Tawfiq JA, Amr SS. Madura leg due to Exophiala jeanselmei successfully treated with surgery and itraconazole therapy. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 648652.
  • 61
    Capoor MR, Khanna G, Nair D et al. Eumycetoma pedis due to Exophiala jeanselmei. Indian J Med Microbiol 2007; 25: 155157.
  • 62
    Castro LG, Piquero-Casals J. Clinical and mycologic findings and therapeutic outcome of 27 mycetoma patients from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Int J Dermatol 2008; 47: 160163.
  • 63
    Hay RJ, Mahgoub ES, Leon G, Al Sogair S, Welsh O. Mycetoma. J Med Vet Mycol 1992; 30 (suppl 1): 4149.
  • 64
    Severo LC, Geyer G, Souza AL, Balbinotti M. Feohifomicose subcutanea: relato dos tres primeiros casos do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. An Bras Dermatol 1987; 62: 3740.
  • 65
    Hood SV, Moore CB, Cheesbrough JS, Mene A, Denning DW. Atypical eumycetoma caused by Phialophora parasitica successfully treated with itraconazole and flucytosine. Br J Dermatol 1997; 136: 953956.
  • 66
    Lacroix C, de Kerviler E, Morel P, Derouin F, Feuilhade de Chavin M. Madurella mycetomatis mycetoma treated successfully with oral voriconazole. Br J Dermatol 2005; 152: 10671068.
  • 67
    Lee DK, Schwartz AK. Primary mycetoma osteomyelitis of the calcaneus with active subcutaneous nodules. J Foot Ankle Surg 2007; 46: 302306.
  • 68
    Loulergue P, Hot A, Dannaoui E et al. Successful treatment of black-grain mycetoma with voriconazole. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006; 75: 11061107.
  • 69
    Negroni R, Tobon A, Bustamante B, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Patino H, Restrepo A. Posaconazole treatment of refractory eumycetoma and chromoblastomycosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2005; 47: 339346.
  • 70
    McGinnis MR. Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: new concepts, diagnosis, and mycology. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983; 8: 116.
  • 71
    Andrade TS, Castro LG, Nunes RS, Gimenes VM, Cury AE. Susceptibility of sequential Fonsecaea pedrosoi isolates from chromoblastomycosis patients to antifungal agents. Mycoses 2004; 47: 216221.
  • 72
    Bonifaz A, Paredes-Solis V, Saul A. Treating chromoblastomycosis with systemic antifungals. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2004; 5: 247254.
  • 73
    Queiroz-Telles F, Purim KS, Fillus JN et al. Itraconazole in the treatment of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Int J Dermatol 1992; 31: 805812.
  • 74
    Queiroz-Telles F, Esterre P, Perez-Blanco M, Vitale RG, Salgado CG, Bonifaz A. Chromoblastomycosis: an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 315.
  • 75
    Queiroz-Telles F, Santos DW. Challenges in the therapy of chromoblastomycosis. Mycopathologia 2013; 175: 477488.
  • 76
    Restrepo A, Gonzalez A, Gomez I, Arango M, de Bedout C. Treatment of chromoblastomycosis with itraconazole. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988; 544: 504516.
  • 77
    Attapattu MC. Chromoblastomycosis—a clinical and mycological study of 71 cases from Sri Lanka. Mycopathologia 1997; 137: 145151.
  • 78
    Minotto R, Bernardi CD, Mallmann LF, Edelweiss MI, Scroferneker ML. Chromoblastomycosis: a review of 100 cases in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44: 585592.
  • 79
    Bansal AS, Prabhakar R. Chromomycosis: a twenty-year-analysis of histologically confirmed cases in Jamaica. Trop Geogr Med 1989; 41: 222226.
  • 80
    Bonifaz A, Carrasco-Gerard E, Saúl A. Chromoblastomycosis: clinical and mycologic experience of 51 cases. Mycoses 2001; 44: 17.
  • 81
    Castro LG, Pimentel ER, Lacaz CS. Treatment of chromomycosis by cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen: 15 years' experience. Int J Dermatol 2003; 42: 408412.
  • 82
    Bassas-Vila J, Fuente MJ, Guinovart R, Ferrándiz C. Chromoblastomycosis: response to combination therapy with cryotherapy and terbinafine. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2013; pii: S0001-7310(13)00105-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ad.2013.02.008 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 83
    Gupta AK, Taborda PR, Sanzovo AD. Alternate week and combination itraconazole and terbinafine therapy for chromoblastomycosis caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in Brazil. Med Mycol 2002; 40: 529534.
  • 84
    Kullavanijaya P, Rojanavanich V. Successful treatment of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi by the combination of itraconazole and cryotherapy. Int J Dermatol 1995; 34: 804807.
  • 85
    Bonifaz A, Davoudi MM, de Hoog GS et al. Severe disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent patient caused by Veronaea botryosa. Mycopathologia 2013; 175: 497503.
  • 86
    Calvo E, Pastor FJ, Salas V, Mayayo E, Capilla J, Guarro J. Histopathology and antifungal treatment of experimental murine chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladophialophora carrionii. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012; 67: 666670.
  • 87
    Deng S, de Hoog GS, Badali H et al. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Cladophialophora carrionii, an agent of human chromoblastomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57: 19741977.
  • 88
    Dupont C, Duong TA, Mallet S et al. Unusual presentation of chromoblastomycosis due to Cladophialophora carrionii in a renal and pancreas transplant recipient patient successfully treated with posaconazole and surgical excision. Transpl Infect Dis 2010; 12: 180183.
  • 89
    Gopinathan U, Garg P, Fernandes M, Sharma S, Athmanathan S, Rao GN. The epidemiological features and laboratory results of fungal keratitis: a 10-year review at a referral eye care center in South India. Cornea 2002; 21: 555559.
  • 90
    Thomas PA. Fungal infections of the cornea. Eye 2003; 17: 852862.
  • 91
    Thomas PA, Kaliamurthy J. Mycotic keratitis: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19: 210220.
  • 92
    Garg P, Gopinathan U, Choudhary K, Rao GN. Keratomycosis: clinical and microbiologic experience with dematiaceous fungi. Ophthalmology 2000; 107: 574580.
  • 93
    Wilhelmus KR, Jones DB. Curvularia keratitis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2001; 99: 111130.
  • 94
    Wilhelmus KR. Climatology of dematiaceous fungal keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 140: 11561157.
  • 95
    Ozbek Z, Kang S, Sivalingam J, Rapuano CJ, Cohen EJ, Hammersmith KM. Voriconazole in the management of Alternaria keratitis. Cornea 2006; 25: 242244.
  • 96
    Sharma N, Chacko J, Velpandian T et al. Comparative evaluation of topical versus intrastromal voriconazole as an adjunct to natamycin in recalcitrant fungal keratitis. Ophthalmology 2013; 120: 677681.
  • 97
    Tu EY. Alternaria keratitis: clinical presentation and resolution with topical fluconazole or intrastromal voriconazole and topical caspofungin. Cornea 2009; 28: 116119.
  • 98
    Siatiri H, Daneshgar F, Siatiri N, Khodabande A. The effects of intrastromal voriconazole injection and topical voriconazole in the treatment of recalcitrant Fusarium keratitis. Cornea 2011; 30: 872875.
  • 99
    Borges MC Jr, Warren S, White W, Pellettiere EV. Pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis due to Xylohypha bantiana. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991; 115: 627629.
  • 100
    Brenner SA, Morgan J, Rickert PD, Rimland D. Cladophialophora bantiana isolated from an AIDS patient with pulmonary infiltrates. J Med Vet Mycol 1996; 34: 427429.
  • 101
    Burns KE, Ohori NP, Iacono AT. Dactylaria gallopava infection presenting as a pulmonary nodule in a single-lung transplant recipient. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000; 19: 900902.
  • 102
    Al-Aidaroos A, Bin-Hussain I, El Solh H et al. Invasive Chaetomium infection in two immunocompromised pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007; 26: 456458.
  • 103
    Elinav H, Izhar U, Benenson S et al. Invasive Scytalidium dimidiatum infection in an immunocompetent adult. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 12591263.
  • 104
    Hollingsworth JW, Shofer S, Zaas A. Successful treatment of Ochroconis gallopavum infection in an immunocompetent host. Infection 2007; 35: 367369.
  • 105
    Lastoria C, Cascina A, Bini F et al. Pulmonary Cladophialophora boppii infection in a lung transplant recipient: case report and literature review. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009; 28: 635637.
  • 106
    Mullane K, Toor AA, Kalnicky C, Rodriguez T, Klein J, Stiff P. Posaconazole salvage therapy allows successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory invasive mold infections. Transpl Infect Dis 2007; 9: 8996.
  • 107
    Woo PC, Lau SK, Ngan AH, Tse H, Tung ET, Yuen KY. Lasiodiplodia theobromae pneumonia in a liver transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46: 380384.
  • 108
    Greig JR, Khan MA, Hopkinson NS, Marshall BG, Wilson PO, Rahman SU. Pulmonary infection with Scedosporium prolificans in an immunocompetent individual. J Infect 2001; 43: 1517.
  • 109
    Al-Tawfiq JA, Boukhamseen A. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Rhinocladiella mackenziei (formerly Ramichloridium mackenziei): case presentation and literature review. J Infect Public Health 2011; 4: 96102.
  • 110
    Carter E, Boudreaux C. Fatal cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Curvularia lunata in an immunocompetent patient. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 54195423.
  • 111
    Chang X, Li R, Yu J, Bao X, Qin J. Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a 3-year-old immunocompetent host. J Child Neurol 2009; 24: 342345.
  • 112
    Delfino D, De Hoog S, Polonelli L et al. Survival of a neglected case of brain abscess caused by Cladophialophora bantiana. Med Mycol 2006; 44: 651654.
  • 113
    Ebright JR, Chandrasekar PH, Marks S, Fairfax MR, Aneziokoro A, McGinnins MR. Invasive sinusitis and cerebritis due to Curvularia clavata in an immunocompetent adult. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28: 687689.
  • 114
    Filizzola MJ, Martinez F, Rauf SJ. Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system in immunocompetent hosts: report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Infect Dis 2003; 7: 282286.
  • 115
    Flanagan KL, Bryceson AD. Disseminated infection due to Bipolaris australiensis in a young immunocompetent man: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25: 311313.
  • 116
    Revankar SG. Cladophialophora bantiana brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2011; 22: 149150.
  • 117
    Garg N, Devi IB, Vajramani GV et al. Central nervous system cladosporiosis: an account of ten culture-proven cases. Neurol India 2007; 55: 282288.
  • 118
    Jabeen K, Farooqi J, Zafar A et al. Rhinocladiella mackenziei as an emerging cause of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in Pakistan: a case series. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52: 213217.
  • 119
    Li DM, de Hoog GS. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis—a cure at what lengths? Lancet Infect Dis 2009; 9: 376383.
  • 120
    Pedersen MB, Zhao Y, Arendrup MC et al. Co-existence of cerebral infection with Rhinocladiella mackenziei and primary central nervous system lymphoma in a HIV-negative patient. APMIS 2011; 119: 221223.
  • 121
    Al-Abdely HM, Najvar L, Bocanegra R et al. SCH 56592, amphotericin B, or itraconazole therapy of experimental murine cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Ramichloridium obovoideum (Ramichloridium mackenziei). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44: 11591162.
  • 122
    Al-Abdely HM, Alkhunaizi AM, Al-Tawfiq JA, Hassounah M, Rinaldi M, Sutton DA. Successful therapy of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Ramichloridium mackenziei with the new triazole posaconazole. Med Mycol 2005; 43: 9195.
  • 123
    Badali H, de Hoog GS, Curfs-Breuker I, Klaassen CH, Meis JF. Use of amplified fragment length polymorphism to identify 42 Cladophialophora strains related to cerebral phaeohyphomycosis with in vitro antifungal susceptibility. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 23502356.
  • 124
    Fica A, Diaz MC, Luppi M et al. Unsuccessful treatment with voriconazole of a brain abscess due to Cladophialophora bantiana. Scand J Infect Dis 2003; 35: 892893.
  • 125
    Koo S, Klompas M, Marty FM. Fonsecaea monophora cerebral phaeohyphomycosis: case report of successful surgical excision and voriconazole treatment and review. Med Mycol 2010; 48: 769774.
  • 126
    Levin TP, Baty DE, Fekete T, Truant AL, Suh B. Cladophialophora bantiana brain abscess in a solid-organ transplant recipient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 43744378.
  • 127
    Revankar SG, Sutton DA, Rinaldi MG. Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis: a review of 101 cases. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 206216.
  • 128
    Trinh JV, Steinbach WJ, Schell WA, Kurtzberg J, Giles SS, Perfect JR. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in an immunodeficient child treated medically with combination antifungal therapy. Med Mycol 2003; 41: 339345.
  • 129
    Harrison DK, Moser S, Palmer CA. Central nervous system infections in transplant recipients by Cladophialophora bantiana. South Med J 2008; 101: 292296.
  • 130
    Taj-Aldeen SJ, Almaslamani M, Alkhalf A et al. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Rhinocladiella mackenziei (formerly Ramichloridium mackenziei): a taxonomic update and review of the literature. Med Mycol 2010; 48: 546556.
  • 131
    Karuppal R, Kumaran CM, Marthya A et al. Tibial osteomyelitis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi in an immunocompetent patient: case report. J Foot Ankle Surg 2009; 48: 569572.
  • 132
    Shigemura T, Agematsu K, Yamazaki T et al. Femoral osteomyelitis due to Cladophialophora arxii in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Infection 2009; 37: 469473.
  • 133
    Greig J, Harkness M, Taylor P, Hashmi C, Liang S, Kwan J. Peritonitis due to the dermatiaceous mold Exophiala dermatitidis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003; 9: 713715.
  • 134
    Kerr CM, Perfect JR, Craven PC et al. Fungal peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 334336.
  • 135
    Reiss-Levy E, Clingan P. Peritonitis caused by Alternaria alternata. Med J Aust 1981; 2: 44.
  • 136
    Rossmann SN, Cernoch PL, Davis JR. Dematiaceous fungi are an increasing cause of human disease. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22: 7380.
  • 137
    Shin JH, Lee SK, Suh SP et al. Fatal Hormonema dematioides peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: criteria for organism identification and review of other known fungal etiologic agents. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 21572163.
  • 138
    Revankar SG, Patterson JE, Sutton DA, Pullen R, Rinaldi MG. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis: review of an emerging mycosis. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 467476.
  • 139
    Li DM, Li RY, De Hoog GS, Wang YX, Wang DL. Exophiala asiatica, a new species from a fatal case in China. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 101109.
  • 140
    Li DM, Li RY, de Hoog GS, Sudhadham M, Wang DL. Fatal Exophiala infections in China, with a report of seven cases. Mycoses 2011; 54: e136e142.
  • 141
    Al-Obaid I, Ahmad S, Khan ZU, Dinesh B, Hejab HM. Catheter-associated fungemia due to Exophiala oligosperma in leukemic child and review of fungemia cases caused by Exophiala species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2006; 25: 729732.
  • 142
    Alabaz D, Kibar F, Arikan S et al. Systemic phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala (Wangiella) in an immunocompetent child. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 653657.
  • 143
    Barron MA, Sutton DA, Veve R et al. Invasive mycotic infections caused by Chaetomium perlucidum, a new agent of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 53025307.
  • 144
    Boggild AK, Poutanen SM, Mohan S, Ostrowski MA. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis due to Ochroconis gallopavum in the setting of advanced HIV infection. Med Mycol 2006; 44: 777782.
  • 145
    Brandt ME, Warnock DW. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. J Chemother 2003; 15(suppl 2): 3647.
  • 146
    Oztas E, Odemis B, Kekilli M et al. Systemic phaeohyphomycosis resembling primary sclerosing cholangitis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis. J Med Microbiol 2009; 58: 12431246.
  • 147
    Negroni R, Helou SH, Petri N, Robles AM, Arechavala A, Bianchi MH. Case study: posaconazole treatment of disseminated phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala spinifera. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: e15e20.
  • 148
    Howden BP, Slavin MA, Schwarer AP, Mijch AM. Successful control of disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection with a combination of voriconazole and terbinafine. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2003; 22: 111113.
  • 149
    Tong SY, Peleg AY, Yoong J, Handke R, Szer J, Slavin M. Breakthrough Scedosporium prolificans infection while receiving voriconazole prophylaxis in an allogeneic stem cell transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis 2007; 9: 241243.
  • 150
    Whyte M, Irving H, O'Regan P, Nissen M, Siebert D, Labrom R. Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection and survival of a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005; 24: 375377.
  • 151
    Rinaldi MG, Phillips P, Schwartz JG et al. Human Curvularia infections. Report of five cases and review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1987; 6: 2739.
  • 152
    Rupa V, Jacob M, Mathews MS, Seshadri MS. A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of postoperative oral steroid in allergic fungal sinusitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2010; 267: 233238.
  • 153
    Rupa V, Thomas M. Different types of fungal sinusitis occurring concurrently: implications for therapy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013; 270: 603608.
  • 154
    Taj-Aldeen SJ, Hilal AA, Schell WA. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: a report of 8 cases. Am J Otolaryngol 2004; 25: 213218.
  • 155
    Kuhn FA, Javer AR. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: perioperative management, prevention of recurrence, and role of steroids and antifungal agents. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33: 419433.
  • 156
    Chan KO, Genoway KA, Javer AR. Effectiveness of itraconazole in the management of refractory allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008; 37: 870874.
  • 157
    Erwin GE, Fitzgerald JE. Case report: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic fungal sinusitis successfully treated with voriconazole. J Asthma 2007; 44: 891895.
  • 158
    Seiberling K, Wormald PJ. The role of itraconazole in recalcitrant fungal sinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2009; 23: 303306.
  • 159
    Maloney AM, Ethier MC, Mitchell D, Zaoutis T, Sung L, Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia Infection Research Group. Alternaria sinusitis in children with acute myeloid leukemia: case reports from the Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia Infection Research Group. Leuk Lymphoma 2010; 51: 345347.
  • 160
    Chowdhary A, Agarwal K, Kathuria S, Gaur SN, Randhawa HS, Meis JF. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to fungi other than Aspergillus: a global overview. Crit Rev Microbiol 2013; in press.
  • 161
    Halwig JM, Brueske DA, Greenberger PA, Dreisin RB, Sommers HM. Allergic bronchopulmonary curvulariosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 132: 186188.
  • 162
    Saenz RE, Brown WD, Sanders CV. Allergic bronchopulmonary disease caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis presenting as a necrotizing pneumonia: case report and review of literature. Am J Med Sci 2001; 321: 209212.
  • 163
    Agarwal R, Chakrabarti A, Shah A et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: review of literature and proposal of new diagnostic and classification criteria. Clin Exp Allergy 2013; 43: 850873.
  • 164
    De Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gene J, Figueras MJ. Atlas of clinical fungi, 2nd edn. Virgili: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, 2000; 645668.
  • 165
    De Lucca AJ. Harmful fungi in both agriculture and medicine. Rev Iberoam Micol 2007; 24: 313.
  • 166
    Tournas VH. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards. Crit Rev Microbiol 2005; 31: 3344.
  • 167
    Lyke KE, Miller NS, Towne L, Merz WG. A case of cutaneous ulcerative alternariosis: rare association with diabetes mellitus and unusual failure of itraconazole treatment. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 11781187.
  • 168
    Mirhendi H, Fatemi MJ, Bateni H et al. First case of disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent individual due to Alternaria malorum. Med Mycol 2013; 51: 196202.
  • 169
    Ono M, Nishigori C, Tanaka C, Tanaka S, Tsuda M, Miyachi Y. Cutaneous alternariosis in an immunocompetent patient: analysis ofthe internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and Brm2 of isolated Alternaria alternata. Br J Dermatol 2004; 150: 773775.
  • 170
    Sood N, Gugnani HC, Guarro J, Paliwal-Joshi A, Vijayan VK. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria alternata in an immunocompetent patient. Int J Dermatol 2007; 46: 412413.
  • 171
    Williams C, Layton AM, Kerr K, Kibbler C, Barton RC. Cutaneous infection with an Alternaria sp. in an immunocompetent host. Clin Exp Dermatol 2008; 33: 440442.
  • 172
    Hipolito E, Faria E, Alves AF, de Hoog GS, Anjos J, Gonçalves T. Alternaria infectoria brain abscess in a child with chronic granulomatous disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009; 28: 377380.
  • 173
    Gilaberte M, Bartralot R, Torres JM et al. Cutaneous alternariosis in transplant recipients: clinicopathologic review of 9 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52: 653659.
  • 174
    Morrison VA, Weisdorf DJ. Alternaria: a sinonasal pathogen of immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 16: 265270.
  • 175
    Del Palacio A, Gomez-Hernando C, Revenga F et al. Cutaneous Alternaria alternata infection successfully treated with itraconazole. Clin Exp Dermatol 1996; 21: 241243.
  • 176
    Bourlond A, Alexandre G. Dermal alternariasis in a kidney transplant recipient. Dermatologica 1984; 168: 152156.
  • 177
    Kpodzo DS, Calderwood MS, Ruchelsman DE et al. Primary subcutaneous Alternaria alternata infection of the hand in an immunocompromised host. Med Mycol 2011; 49: 543547.
  • 178
    Loveless MO, Winn RE, Campbell M, Jones SR. Mixed invasive infection with Alternaria species and Curvularia species. Am J Clin Pathol 1981; 76: 491493.
  • 179
    Woudenberg JH, Groenewald JZ, Binder M, Crous PW. Alternaria redefined. Stud Mycol 2013; 75: 171212.
  • 180
    Ben-Ami R, Lewis RE, Raad II, Kontoyiannis DP. Phaeohyphomycosis in a tertiary care cancer center. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 10331041.
  • 181
    Luque P, García-Gil FA, Larraga J et al. Treatment of cutaneous infection by Alternaria alternata with voriconazole in a liver transplant patient. Transplant Proc 2006; 38: 25142515.
  • 182
    Sharkey PK, Graybill JR, Rinaldi MG et al. Itraconazole treatment of phaeohyphomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990; 23: 577586.
  • 183
    Al-Mohsen IZ, Sutton DA, Sigler L et al. Acrophialophora fusispora brain abscess in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: review of cases and taxonomy. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 45694576.
  • 184
    Guarro J, Mendiratta DK, De Sequeira H et al. Acrophialophora fusispora: an emerging agent of human mycoses. A report of 3 new clinical cases. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2007; 59: 8588.
  • 185
    Li CW, Lee HC, Chang TC et al. Acrophialophora fusispora brain abscess in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 76: 368371.
  • 186
    Guarro J, Gené J. Acrophialophora fusispora misidentified as Scedosporium prolificans. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 3544.
  • 187
    Girardi LS, Malowitz R, Tortora GT, Spitzer ED. Aureobasidium pullulans septicemia. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 16: 338339.
  • 188
    Kutleša M, Mlinarić-Missoni E, Hatvani L et al. Chronic fungal meningitis caused by Aureobasidium proteae. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 73: 271272.
  • 189
    Caporale NE, Calegari L, Perez D, Gezuele E. Peritoneal catheter colonization and peritonitis with Aureobasidium pullulans. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: 9798.
  • 190
    Clark EC, Silver SM, Hollick GE, Rinaldi MG. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis complicated by Aureobasidium pullulans peritonitis. Am J Nephrol 1995; 15: 353355.
  • 191
    Hawkes M, Rennie R, Sand C, Vaudry W. Aureobasidium pullulans infection: fungemia in an infant and a review of human cases. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2005; 51: 209213.
  • 192
    Ibañez Perez R, Chacón J, Fidalgo A, Martin J, Paraiso V, Muñoz-Bellido JL. Peritonitis by Aureobasidium pullulans in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12: 15441545.
  • 193
    Mise N, Ono Y, Kurita N et al. Aureobasidium pullulans peritonitis: case report and review of the literature. Perit Dial Int 2008; 28: 679681.
  • 194
    Arranz Sánchez DM, de la Calle MC, Martín-Díaz MA et al. Subcutaneous mycosis produced by Aureobasidium pullulans in a renal transplant recipient. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006; 20: 229230.
  • 195
    Bolignano G, Criseo G. Disseminated nosocomial fungal infection by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum: a case report. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 44834485.
  • 196
    Joshi A, Singh R, Shah MS, Umesh S, Khattry N. Subcutaneous mycosis and fungemia by Aureobasidium pullulans: a rare pathogenic fungus in a post allogeneic BM transplant patient. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45: 203204.
  • 197
    Kaczmarski EB, Liu Yin JA, Tooth JA, Love EM, Delamore IW. Systemic infection with Aureobasidium pullulans in a leukaemic patient. J Infect 1986; 13: 289291.
  • 198
    Koppang HS, Olsen I, Stuge U, Sandven P. Aureobasidium infection of the jaw. J Oral Pathol Med 1991; 20: 191195.
  • 199
    Krcméry V Jr, Spánik S, Danisovicová A, Jesenská Z, Blahová M. Aureobasidium mansoni meningitis in a leukemia patient successfully treated with amphotericin B. Chemotherapy 1994; 40: 7071.
  • 200
    Mershon-Shier KL, Deville JG, Delair S et al. Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum fungemia in a pediatric patient. Med Mycol 2011; 49: 8083.
  • 201
    Morais OO, Porto C, Coutinho AS, Reis CM, Teixeira Mde M, Gomes CM. Infection of the lymphatic system by Aureobasidium pullulans in a patient with erythema nodosum leprosum. Braz J Infect Dis 2011; 15: 288292.
  • 202
    Salkin IF, Martinez JA, Kemna ME. Opportunistic infection of the spleen caused by Aureobasidium pullulans. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 23: 828831.
  • 203
    Tan HP, Wahlstrom HE, Zamora JU, Hassanein T. Aureobasidium pneumonia in a post liver transplant recipient: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology 1997; 44: 12151218.
  • 204
    Chawla B, Sharma N, Titiyal JS, Nayak N, Satpathy G. Aureobasidium pullulans keratitis following automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2010; 9: 13.
  • 205
    Gupta V, Chawla R, Sen S. Aureobasidium pullulans scleritis following keratoplasty: a case report. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 2001; 32: 481482.
  • 206
    Huang YT, Liaw SJ, Liao CH et al. Catheter-related septicemia due to Aureobasidium pullulans. Int J Infect Dis 2008; 12: e137e139.
  • 207
    Maverick KJ, Conners MS. Aureobasidium pullulans fungal keratitis following LASEK. J Refract Surg 2007; 23: 727729.
  • 208
    Panda A, Das H, Deb M, Khanal B, Kumar S. Aureobasidium pullulans keratitis. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2006; 34: 260264.
  • 209
    Pikazis D, Xynos ID, Xila V, Velegraki A, Aroni K. Extended fungal skin infection due to Aureobasidium pullulans. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009; 34: e892e894.
  • 210
    Redondo-Bellón P, Idoate M, Rubio M, Ignacio Herrero J. Chromoblastomycosis produced by Aureobasidium pullulans in an immunosuppressed patient. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133: 663664.
  • 211
    Cuenca-Estrella M, Gomez-Lopez A, Mellado E, Buitrago MJ, Monzon A, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. Head-to-head comparison of the activities of currently available antifungal agents against 3,378 Spanish clinical isolates of yeasts and filamentous fungi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50: 917921.
  • 212
    Sivanesan A. Graminicolous species of Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum, and their teleomorphs. Mycol Pap 1987; 158: 1261.
  • 213
    Da Cunha KC, Sutton DA, Fothergill AW et al. Diversity of Bipolaris species in clinical samples in the United States and their antifungal susceptibility profiles. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 40614066.
  • 214
    Manamgoda DS, Cai L, McKenzie EHC et al. A phylogenetic and taxonomic re-evaluation of the Bipolaris–Cochliobolus–Curvularia complex. Fungal Divers 2012; 56: 131144.
  • 215
    Toul P, Castillo L, Hofman V, Bouchara JP, Chanalet S, Gari-Toussaint M. A pseudo tumoral sinusitis caused by Bipolaris sp. J Infect 2006; 53: e235e237.
  • 216
    Newell CK, Steinmetz RL, Brooks HL Jr. Chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Bipolaris australiensis. Retina 2006; 26: 109110.
  • 217
    Sheyman AT, Cohen BZ, Friedman AH, Ackert JM. An outbreak of fungal endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of compounded combined bevacizumab and triamcinolone. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013; 131: 864869.
  • 218
    Chowdhary A, Randhawa HS, Singh V et al. Bipolaris hawaiiensis as etiologic agent of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis: first case in a paediatric patient. Med Mycol 2011; 49: 760765.
  • 219
    Bava AJ, Fayad A, Céspedes C, Sandoval M. Fungal peritonitis caused by Bipolaris spicifera. Med Mycol 2003; 41: 529531.
  • 220
    Ogden PE, Hurley DL, Cain PT. Fatal fungal endarteritis caused by Bipolaris spicifera following replacement of the aortic valve. Clin Infect Dis 1992; 14: 596598.
  • 221
    Morton SJ, Midthun K, Merz WG. Granulomatous encephalitis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1986; 110: 11831185.
  • 222
    Pauzner R, Goldschmied-Reouven A, Hay I et al. Phaeohyphomycosis following cardiac surgery: case report and review of serious infection due to Bipolaris and Exserohilum species. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25: 921923.
  • 223
    Castelnuovo P, De Bernardi F, Cavanna C et al. Invasive fungal sinusitis due to Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Mycoses 2004; 47: 7681.
  • 224
    Rosow L, Jiang JX, Deuel T et al. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris spicifera after heart transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2011; 13: 419423.
  • 225
    Viola GM, Sutton R. Allergic fungal sinusitis complicated by fungal brain mass. Int J Infect Dis 2010; 14(suppl 3): e299e301.
  • 226
    Bilu D, Movahedi-Lankarani S, Kazin RA, Shields C, Moresi M. Cutaneous Bipolaris infection in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Cutan Med Surg 2004; 8: 446449.
  • 227
    Dubey A, Patwardhan RV, Sampth S, Santosh V, Kolluri S, Nanda A. Intracranial fungal granuloma: analysis of 40 patients and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 2005; 63: 254260.
  • 228
    Karim M, Sheikh H, Alam M, Sheikh Y. Disseminated Bipolaris infection in an asthmatic patient: case report. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 248253.
  • 229
    Khan JA, Hussain ST, Hasan S, McEvoy P, Sarwari A. Disseminated Bipolaris infection in an immunocompetent host: an atypical presentation. J Pak Med Assoc 2000; 50: 6871.
  • 230
    Moore ML, Collins GR, Hawk BJ, Russell TS. Disseminated Bipolaris spicifera in a neonate. J Perinatol 2001; 21: 399401.
  • 231
    Buzina W, Braun H, Schimpl K, Stammberger H. Bipolaris spicifera causes fungus balls of the sinuses and triggers polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis in an immunocompetent patient. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 48854887.
  • 232
    Costa AR, Porto E, Tabuti AH et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. A case report. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1991; 33: 7479.
  • 233
    Ambrosetti D, Hofman V, Castillo L, Gari-Toussaint M, Hofman P. An expansive paranasal sinus tumour-like lesion caused by Bipolaris spicifera in an immunocompetent patient. Histopathology 2006; 49: 660662.
  • 234
    Santos DW, Padovan AC, Melo AS et al. Molecular identification of melanised non-sporulating moulds: a useful tool for studying the epidemiology of phaeohyphomycosis. Mycopathologia 2013; 175: 445454.
  • 235
    El-Morsy SM, Khafagy YW, El-Naggar MM, Beih AA. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: detection of fungal DNA in sinus aspirate using polymerase chain reaction. J Laryngol Otol 2010; 124: 152160.
  • 236
    Shin EJ, Guertler N, Kim E, Lalwani AK. Screening of middle ear effusion for the common sinus pathogen Bipolaris. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2003; 260: 7880.
  • 237
    Kimura M, McGinnis MR. Fontana–Masson-stained tissue from culture-proven mycoses. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1998; 122: 11071111.
  • 238
    Adam RD, Paquin ML, Petersen EA et al. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by the fungal genera Bipolaris and Exserohilum. A report of 9 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1986; 65: 203217.
  • 239
    Durkin SR, Henderson T, Raju R, Ellis D. Successful treatment of phaeohyphomycotic keratitis caused by Bipolaris australiensis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2008; 36: 697699.
  • 240
    Frenkel L, Kuhls TL, Nitta K et al. Recurrent Bipolaris sinusitis following surgical and antifungal therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987; 6: 11301132.
  • 241
    McGinnis MR, Campbell G, Gourley WK, Lucia HL. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris spicifera: an informative case. Eur J Epidemiol 1992; 8: 383386.
  • 242
    Gonzalez GM. In vitro activities of isavuconazole against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 7176.
  • 243
    Gadallah MF, White R, El-Shahawy MA, Abreo F, Oberle A, Work J. Peritoneal dialysis complicated by Bipolaris hawaiiensis peritonitis: successful therapy with catheter removal and oral itraconazole without the use of amphotericin-B. Am J Nephrol 1995; 15: 348352.
  • 244
    Vartivarian SE, Anaissie EJ, Bodey GP. Emerging fungal pathogens in immunocompromised patients: classification, diagnosis, and management. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17(suppl 2): 487491.
  • 245
    De Hoog GS, Vitale RG. Bipolaris, Exophiala, Scedosporium, Sporothrix and other dematiaceous fungi. Chaper 125. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgenson JH, Landry ML, Pfaller MA, eds, Manual of clinical microbiology, Vol. 2, 9th edn. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2007; 18981917.
  • 246
    Guarro J. Comments on recent human infections caused by ascomycetes. Med Mycol 1998; 36: 349350.
  • 247
    Abbott SP, Sigler L, McAleer R, McGough DA, Rinaldi MG, Mizell G. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 26922698.
  • 248
    Anandi V, John TJ, Walter A et al. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Chaetomium globosum in a renal transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27: 22262229.
  • 249
    Aru A, Munk-Nielsen L, Federspiel BH. The soil fungus Chaetomium in the human paranasal sinuses. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1997; 254: 350352.
  • 250
    Guppy KH, Thomas C, Thomas K, Anderson D. Cerebral fungal infections in the immunocompromised host: a literature review and a new pathogen—Chaetomium atrobrunneum: case report. Neurosurgery 1998; 43: 14631469.
  • 251
    Hoppin EC, McCoy EL, Rinaldi MG. Opportunistic mycotic infection caused by Chaetomium in a patient with acute leukemia. Cancer 1983; 52: 555556.
  • 252
    Lesire V, Hazouard E, Dequin PF, Delain M, Therizol-Ferly M, Legras A. Possible role of Chaetomium globosum in infection after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Intensive Care Med 1999; 25: 124125.
  • 253
    Stiller MJ, Rosenthal S, Summerbell RC, Pollack J, Chan A. Onychomycosis of the toenails caused by Chaetomium globosum. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 26: 775776.
  • 254
    Thomas C, Mileusnic D, Carey RB, Kampert M, Anderson D. Fatal Chaetomium cerebritis in a bone marrow transplant patient. Hum Pathol 1999; 30: 874879.
  • 255
    Yeghen T, Fenelon L, Campbell CK et al. Chaetomium pneumonia in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. J Clin Pathol 1996; 49: 184186.
  • 256
    von Arx JA, Figueras MJ, Guarro J. Sordariaceous ascomycetes without ascospore ejaculation. Beih Nova Hedwigia 1988; 94: 1104.
  • 257
    Guarro J, Soler L, Rinaldi MG. Pathogenicity and antifungal susceptibility of Chaetomium species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995; 14: 613618.
  • 258
    Serena C, Ortoneda M, Capilla J et al. In vitro activities of new antifungal agents against Chaetomium spp. and inoculum standardization. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003; 47: 31613164.
  • 259
    Horre R, de Hoog GS. Primary cerebral infections by melanized fungi: a review. Stud Mycol 1999; 43: 176193.
  • 260
    Jayakeerthi SR, Dias M, Nagarathna S, Anandh B, Mahadevan A, Chandramuki A. Brain abscess due to Cladophialophora bantiana. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004; 22: 193195.
  • 261
    Badali H, Gueidan C, Najafzadeh MJ, Bonifaz A, van den Ende AH, de Hoog GS. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora. Stud Mycol 2008; 61: 175191.
  • 262
    Chakrabarti A. Epidemiology of central nervous system mycoses. Neurol India 2007; 55: 191197.
  • 263
    Feng PY, de Hoog GS, Najafzadeh MJ et al. Cladophialophora abundans, a novel species of Chaetothyriales isolated from the natural environment. Mycol Prog 2013. doi: 10.1007/s11557-013-0924-4.
  • 264
    Kantarcioglu AS, de Hoog GS. Infection of the central nervous system by melanized fungi: a review of cases presented between 1999 and 2004. Mycoses 2004; 47: 413.
  • 265
    Walz R, Bianchin M, Chaves ML, Cerski MR, Severo LC, Londero AT. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in a Brazilian drug abuser. J Med Vet Mycol 1997; 35: 427431.
  • 266
    Parente JN, Talhari C, Ginter-Hanselmayer G et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompetent patients: two new cases caused by Exophiala jeanselmei and Cladophialophora carrionii. Mycoses 2011; 54: 265269.
  • 267
    Silveira F, Nucci M. Emergence of black moulds in fungal disease: epidemiology and therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2001; 14: 679684.
  • 268
    Singh N, Chang FY, Gayowski T, Marino IR. Infections due to dematiaceous fungi in organ transplant recipients: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 24: 369374.
  • 269
    Patterson TF, Andriole VT, Zervos MJ, Therasse D, Kauffman CA. The epidemiology of pseudallescheriasis complicating transplantation: nosocomial and community-acquired infection. Mycoses 1990; 33: 297302.
  • 270
    Revankar SG. Phaeohyphomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2006; 20: 609620.
  • 271
    Lyons MK, Blair JE, Leslie KO. Successful treatment with voriconazole of fungal cerebral abscess due to Cladophialophora bantiana. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005; 107: 532534.
  • 272
    Groll AH, Piscitelli SC, Walsh TJ. Clinical pharmacology of systemic antifungal agents: a comprehensive review of agents in clinical use, current investigational compounds, and putative targets for antifungal drug development. Adv Pharmacol 1998; 44: 343499.
  • 273
    McGinnis MR, Pasarell L. In vitro evaluation of terbinafine and itraconazole against dematiaceous fungi. Med Mycol 1998; 36: 243246.
  • 274
    McGinnis MR, Pasarell L. In vitro testing of susceptibilities of filamentous ascomycetes to voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B, with consideration of phylogenetic implications. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 23532355.
  • 275
    Johnson LB, Kauffman CA. Voriconazole: a new triazole antifungal agent. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 630637.
  • 276
    Marine M, Pastor FJ, Guarro J. Combined antifungal therapy in a murine model of disseminated infection by Cladophialophora bantiana. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 4549.
  • 277
    Da Cunha K, Sutton DA, Fothergill AW et al. In vitro antifungal susceptibility and molecular identity of 99 clinical isolates of the opportunistic fungal genus Curvularia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 76: 168174.
  • 278
    Bartynski JM, McCaffrey TV, Frigas E. Allergic fungal sinusitis secondary to dematiaceous fungi: Curvularia lunata and Alternaria. Otolaryngology 1990; 103: 3239.
  • 279
    Posterano B, Scarano E, La Sorda M et al. Eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis due to the unusual pathogen Curvularia inaequalis. Mycoses 2010; 53: 8488.
  • 280
    Moody MN, Tschen J, Mesko M. Cutaneous Curvularia infection of the forearm. Cutis 2012; 89: 6568.
  • 281
    Tanabe K, Seino M, Senda S. Superficial mycoses of the breast caused by Curvularia inaequalis. Eur J Dermatol 2010; 20: 658659.
  • 282
    Barde AK, Singh SM. A case of onychomycosis caused by Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn. Mykosen 1983; 26: 311316.
  • 283
    Alvarez VC, Guelfand L, Pidone JC, Soloaga R, Ontivero P, Margari A. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Curvularia sp. Rev Iberoam Micol 2011; 28: 104106.
  • 284
    Guarro J, Akiti T, Horta RA et al. Mycotic keratitis due to Curvularia senegalensis and in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of Curvularia spp. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 41704173.
  • 285
    Berbel RF, Casella AM, de Freitas D, Höfling-Lima AL. Curvularia lunata endophthalmitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2011; 27: 535537.
  • 286
    Ehlers JP, Chavala SH, Woodward JA, Postel EA. Delayed recalcitrant fungal endophthalmitis secondary to Curvularia. Can J Ophthalmol 2011; 46: 199200.
  • 287
    Janaki C, Sentamilselvi G, Janaki G, Devesh VR, Ajithados K. Eumycetoma due to Curvularia lunata. Mycoses 1999; 42: 345346.
  • 288
    Berry AJ, Kerkering TM, Giordano AM, Chiancone J. Phaeomycotic sinusitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1984; 3: 150152.
  • 289
    Ismail Y, Johnson RH, Wells MV, Pusavat J, Douglas K, Arsura EL. Invasive sinusitis with intracranial extension caused by Curvularia lunata. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153: 16041606.
  • 290
    Pimentel JD, Mahadevan K, Woodgyer A et al. Peritonitis due to Curvularia inaequalis in an elderly patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis and a review of six cases of peritonitis associated with other Curvularia spp. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 42884292.
  • 291
    Unal A, Sipahioglu MH, Atalay MA et al. Tenckhoff catheter obstruction without peritonitis caused by Curvularia species. Mycoses 2011; 54: 363364.
  • 292
    Killingsworth SM, Wetmore SJ. Curvularia/Drechslera sinusitis. Laryngoscope 1990; 100: 932937.
  • 293
    Singh H, Irwin S, Falowski S et al. Curvularia fungi presenting as a large cranial base meningioma: case report. Neurosurgery 2008; 63: E177.
  • 294
    Bryan CS, Smith CW, Berg DE, Karp RB. Curvularia lunata endocarditis treated with terbinafine: case report. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 16: 3032.
  • 295
    Lampert RP, Hotto JH, Donnelly WH, Shulman ST. Pulmonary and cerebral mycetoma caused by Curvularia pallescens. J Pediatr 1977; 91: 603605.
  • 296
    de la Monte SM, Hutchins GM. Disseminated Curvularia infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1985; 109: 872874.
  • 297
    Tessari G, Forni A, Ferretto R, Solbiati M, Faggian G, Mazzucco A. Lethal systemic dissemination from a cutaneous infection due to Curvularia lunata in a heart transplant recipient. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003; 17: 440442.
  • 298
    Ellis MB. More dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 1976.
  • 299
    Brubaker LH, Steele JC Jr, Rissing JP. Cure of Curvularia pneumonia by amphotericin B in a patient with megakaryocytic leukemia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1988; 112: 11781179.
  • 300
    Varughese S, David VG, Mathews MS, Tamilarasi V. A patient with amphotericin-resistant Curvularia lunata peritonitis. Perit Dial Int 2011; 31: 108109.
  • 301
    Rohwedder JJ, Simmons JL, Colfer H, Gatmaitan B. Disseminated Curvularia lunata infection in a football player. Arch Intern Med 1978; 19: 940941.
  • 302
    de Hoog GS, Vicente V, Caligiorne RB et al. Species diversity and polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera clade containing opportunistic black yeast-like fungi. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 47674778.
  • 303
    Zeng JS, Sutton DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG, Harrak MJ, de Hoog GS. Spectrum of clinically relevant Exophiala species in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 2007; 45: 37133720.
  • 304
    Badali H, Najafzadeh MJ, van Esbroeck M et al. The clinical spectrum of Exophiala jeanselmei, with a case report and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the species. Med Mycol 2010; 48: 318327.
  • 305
    Harris JE, Sutton DA, Rubin A, Wickes B, De Hoog GS, Kovarik C. Exophiala spinifera as a cause of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis: case study and review of the literature. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 8793.
  • 306
    Allred BJ. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala jeanselmei in an immunosuppressed patient: case report. N Z Med J 1990; 103: 321322.
  • 307
    Aoyama Y, Nomura M, Yamanaka S, Ogawa Y, Kitajima Y. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala xenobiotica in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 9599.
  • 308
    Aranegui B, Feal C, García CP et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei treated with wide surgical excision and posaconazole: case report. Int J Dermatol 2013; 52: 255256.
  • 309
    Rajendran C, Khaitan BK, Mittal R, Ramam M, Bhardwaj M, Datta KK. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in India. Med Mycol 2003; 41: 437441.
  • 310
    Revankar SG. Dematiaceous fungi. Mycoses 2007; 50: 91101.
  • 311
    Badali H, Chander J, Bayat M et al. Multiple subcutaneous cysts due to Exophiala spinifera in an immunocompetent patient. Med Mycol 2012; 50: 207213.
  • 312
    Haase G, Skopnik H, Groten T, Kusenbach G, Posselt HG. Long-term fungal cultures from sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis. Mycoses 1991; 34(suppl 1): 373376.
  • 313
    Chang CL, Kim DS, Park DJ, Kim HJ, Lee CH, Shin JH. Acute cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Wangiella dermatitidis accompanied by cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 19651966.
  • 314
    Murayama N, Takimoto R, Kawai M, Hiruma M, Takamori K, Nishimura K. A case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cyst due to Exophiala jeanselmei complicated with systemic lupus erythematous. Mycoses 2003; 46: 145148.
  • 315
    Duvic M, Lowe L, Rios A, MacDonald E, Vance P. Superficial phaeohyphomycosis of the scrotum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1987; 123: 15971599.
  • 316
    Silva MRR, Fernandes OFL, Costa CR et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala jeanselmei in a cardiac transplant recipient. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2005; 47: 5557.
  • 317
    Rallis E, Frangoulis E. Successful treatment of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis owing to Exophiala jeanselmei with oral terbinafine. Int J Dermatol 2006; 45: 13691370.
  • 318
    De Hoog GS, Matos T, Sudhadham M, Luijsterburg KF, Haase G. Intestinal prevalence of the neurotropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis in healthy and impaired individuals. Mycoses 2005; 48: 142145.
  • 319
    Nweze EI, Ezute S. Isolation and antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala dermatitidis isolates from human stool samples in Nigeria. Mycopathologia 2010; 169: 201206.
  • 320
    Najafzadeh MJ, Suh MK, Lee MH et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala equina, with susceptibility to eight antifungal drugs. J Med Microbiol 2013; 62: 797800.
  • 321
    Al-Abdely HM. Management of rare fungal infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2004; 17: 527532.
  • 322
    Chuan MT, Wu MC. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei: successful treatment with itraconazole. Int J Dermatol 1995; 34: 563566.
  • 323
    Ajanee N, Alam M, Holmberg K, Khan J. Brain abscess caused by Wangiella dermatitidis: case report. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23: 197198.
  • 324
    Chua JD, Gordon SM, Banbury J, Hall GS, Procop GW. Relapsing Exophiala jeanselmei phaeohyphomycosis in a lung-transplant patient. Transpl Infect Dis 2001; 3: 235238.
  • 325
    Gold WL, Vellend H, Salit IE et al. Successful treatment of systemic and local infections due to Exophiala species. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 19: 339341.
  • 326
    Kan T, Takahagi S, Kamegashira A, Ooiwa H, Yaguchi T, Hide M. Disseminated subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala oligosperma in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis. Acta Derm Venereol 2013; 93: 356357.
  • 327
    Kenney RT, Kwon-Chung KJ, Waytes AT et al. Successful treatment of systemic Exophiala dermatitidis infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Clin Infect Dis 1992; 14: 235242.
  • 328
    Morio F, Berre JY, Garcia-Hermoso D et al. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala xenobiotica as a cause of fungal arthritis in an HIV-infected patient. Med Mycol 2012; 50: 513517.
  • 329
    Mukaino T, Koga T, Oshita Y, Narita Y, Obata S, Aizawa H. Exophiala dermatitidis infection in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respir Med 2006; 100: 20692071.
  • 330
    Nachman S, Alpan O, Malowitz R, Spitzer ED. Catheter-associated fungemia due to Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34: 10111013.
  • 331
    Patel AK, Patel KK, Darji P, Singh R, Shivaprakash MR, Chakrabarti A. Exophiala dermatitidis endocarditis on native aortic valve in a postrenal transplant patient and review of literature on E. dermatitidis infections. Mycoses 2013; 56: 365372.
  • 332
    Tintelnot K, de Hoog GS, Thomas E, Steudel WI, Huebner K, Seeliger HP. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by an Exophiala species. Mycoses 1991; 34: 239244.
  • 333
    Woo PC, Ngan AH, Tsang CC et al. Clinical spectrum of Exophiala infections and a novel Exophiala species, Exophiala hongkongensis. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51: 260267.
  • 334
    Badali H, de Hoog GS, Sudhadham M, Meis JF. Microdilution in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala dermatitidis, a systemic opportunist. Med Mycol 2011; 49: 819824.
  • 335
    Espinel-Ingroff A. In vitro fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against opportunistic moniliaceous and dematiaceous fungi. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 954958.
  • 336
    Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG, Sutton DA. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Exophiala spp.: a head-to-head comparison of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole. Med Mycol 2009; 47: 4143.
  • 337
    Meletiadis J, Meis JF, de Hoog GS, Verweij PE. In vitro susceptibilities of 11 clinical isolates of Exophiala species to six antifungal drugs. Mycoses 2000; 43: 309312.
  • 338
    Vitale RG, De Hoog GS, Verweij PE. In vitro activity of amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosine against Exophiala spinifera and evaluation of post-antifungal effects. Med Mycol 2003; 41: 301307.
  • 339
    Calvo E, Pastor FJ, Guarro J. Antifungal therapies in murine disseminated phaeohyphomycoses caused by Exophiala species. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65: 14551459.
  • 340
    Da Cunha KC, Sutton DA, Gené J, Capilla J, Cano J, Guarro J. Molecular identification and in vitro response to antifungal drugs of clinical isolates of Exserohilum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56: 49514954.
  • 341
    Adler A, Yaniv I, Samra Z et al. Exserohilum: an emerging human pathogen. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2006; 25: 247253.
  • 342
    Agarwal A, Singh SM. A case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum, its in vitro sensitivity and review of literature. Mycopathologia 1995; 131: 912.
  • 343
    Al-Attar A, Williams CG, Redett RJ. Rare lower extremity invasive fungal infection in an immunosuppressed patient: Exserohilum longirostratum. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006; 117: 44e47e.
  • 344
    Anandi V, George JA, Thomas R, Brahmadathan KN, John TJ. Phaeohyphomycosis of the eye caused by Exserohilum rostratum in India. Mycoses 1991; 34: 489491.
  • 345
    Aquino VM, Norvell JM, Krisher K, Mustafa MM. Fatal disseminated infection due to Exserohilum rostratum in a patient with aplastic anemia: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20: 176178.
  • 346
    Bhigjee AI, Parmanand V, Hoosen AA et al. Disseminated Exserohilum infection. J Infect 1993; 26: 336337.
  • 347
    Derber C, Elam K, Bearman G. Invasive sinonasal disease due to dematiaceous fungi in immunocompromised individuals: case report and review of the literature. Int J Infect Dis 2010; 14(suppl 3): e329e332.
  • 348
    Douer D, Goldschmied-Reouven A, Segev S, Ben-Bassat I. Human Exserohilum and Bipolaris infections: report of Exserohilum nasal infection in a neutropenic patient with acute leukemia and review of the literature. J Med Vet Mycol 1987; 25: 235241.
  • 349
    Hsu MM, Lee JY. Cutaneous and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28: 340344.
  • 350
    Juhas E, Reyes-Mugica M, Michaels MG, Grunwaldt LJ, Gehris RP. Exserohilum infection in an immunocompromised neonate. Pediatr Dermatol 2013; 30: e232e233.
  • 351
    Lavoie SR, Espinel-Ingroff A, Kerkering T. Mixed cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a cocaine user. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 114116.
  • 352
    Levy I, Stein J, Ashkenazi S, Samra Z, Livni G, Yaniv I. Ecthyma gangrenosum caused by disseminated Exserohilum in a child with leukemia: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 2003; 20: 495497.
  • 353
    Lin SC, Sun PL, Ju YM, Chan YJ. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum in a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Int J Dermatol 2009; 48: 295298.
  • 354
    McGinnis MR, Rinaldi MG, Winn RE. Emerging agents of phaeohyphomycosis: pathogenic species of Bipolaris and Exserohilum. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 24: 250259.
  • 355
    Saint-Jean M, St-Germain G, Laferrière C, Tapiero B. Hospital-acquired phaeohyphomycosis due to Exserohilum rostratum in a child with leukemia. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2007; 18: 200202.
  • 356
    Togitani K, Kobayashi M, Sakai M et al. Ethmoidal sinusitis caused by Exserohilum rostratum in a patient with malignant lymphoma after non-myeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2007; 9: 137141.
  • 357
    Bouchon CL, Greer DL, Genre CF. Corneal ulcer due to Exserohilum longirostratum. Am J Clin Pathol 1994; 101: 452455.
  • 358
    Joseph NM, Kumar MA, Stephen S, Kumar S. Keratomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2012; 55: 248249.
  • 359
    Kanungo R, Srinivasan R. Corneal phaeohyphomycosis due to Exserohilum rostratum. A case report and brief review. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1996; 74: 197199.
  • 360
    Mathews MS, Maharajan SV. Exserohilum rostratum causing keratitis in India. Med Mycol 1999; 37: 131132.
  • 361
    Peerapur BV, Rao SD, Patil S, Mantur BG. Keratomycosis due to Exserohilum rostratum—a case report. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004; 22: 126127.
  • 362
    Burges GE, Walls CT, Maize JC. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum in an immunocompetent host. Arch Dermatol 1987; 123: 13461350.
  • 363
    Colton R, Zeharia A, Karmazyn B et al. Exserohilum sinusitis presenting as proptosis in a healthy adolescent male. J Adolesc Health 2002; 30: 7375.
  • 364
    Tieman JM, Furner BB. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum mimicking hemorrhagic herpes zoster. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 25: 852854.
  • 365
    Lasala PR, Smith MB, McGinnis MR, Sackey K, Patel JA, Qiu S. Invasive Exserohilum sinusitis in a patient with aplastic anemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005; 24: 939941.
  • 366
    Lockhart SR, Pham CD, Gade L et al. Preliminary laboratory report of fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51: 26542661.
  • 367
    Lyons JL, Gireesh ED, Trivedi JB et al. Fatal Exserohilum meningitis and central nervous system vasculitis after cervical epidural methyl prednisolone injection. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 835836.
  • 368
    Ritter JM, Muehlenbachs A, Blau DM et al. Exserohilum infections associated with contaminated steroid injections: a clinicopathologic review of 40 cases. Am J Pathol 2013; 183: 881892.
  • 369
    Smith RM, Schaefer MK, Kainer MA et al. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections. N Engl J Med 2013; 369: 15981609.
  • 370
    Gade L, Scheel CM, Pham CD et al. Detection of fungal DNA in human body fluids and tissues during a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. Eukaryot Cell 2013; 12: 677683.
  • 371
    Zhao Y, Petraitiene R, Walsh TJ, Perlin DS. A real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of Exserohilum rostratum, a causative pathogen of fungal meningitis associated with injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51: 10341036.
  • 372
    Moneymaker CS, Shenep JL, Pearson TA et al. Primary cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Exserohilum rostratum (Drechslera rostrata) in a child with leukemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1986; 5: 380382.
  • 373
    Avivi I, Oren I, Haddad N et al. Stem cell transplantation post invasive fungal infection is a feasible risk. Am J Hematol 2004; 75: 611.
  • 374
    Stevens DA. Reflections on the approach to treatment of a mycologic disaster. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57: 15671572.
  • 375
    Pappas PG, Kontoyiannis DP, Perfect JR, Chiller TM. Real-time treatment guidelines: considerations during the Exserohilum rostratum outbreak in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57: 15731576.
  • 376
    Smith RM, Tipple M, Chaudry MN, Schaefer MK, Park BJ. Relapse of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 25352536.
  • 377
    Kontoyiannis DP, Perlin DS, Roilides E, Walsh TJ. What can we learn and what do we need to know amidst the iatrogenic outbreak of Exserohilum rostratum meningitis? Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57: 853859.
  • 378
    Najafzadeh MJ, Badali H, Illnait-Zaragozi MT, De Hoog GS, Meis JF. In vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against 55 clinical isolates of Fonsecaea spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010; 54: 16361638.
  • 379
    Badali H, Fernández-González M, Mousavi B et al. Chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi and F. monophora in Cuba. Mycopathologia 2013; 175: 439444.
  • 380
    De Hoog GS, Attili-Angelis D, Vicente VA et al. Molecular ecology and pathogenic potential of Fonsecaea species. Med Mycol 2004; 42: 405416.
  • 381
    Kondo M, Hiruma M, Nishioka Y et al. A case of chromomycosis caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi and a review of reported cases of dematiaceous fungal infection in Japan. Mycoses 2005; 48: 221225.
  • 382
    Pindycka-Piaszczyńska M, Krzyściak P, Piaszczyński M et al. Chromoblastomycosis as an endemic disease in temperate Europe: first confirmed case and review of the literature. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; Epub ahead of print.
  • 383
    Guerra RS, do Nascimento MM, Miesch S et al. Black yeast biota in the mangrove, in search of the origin of the lethargic crab disease (LCD). Mycopathologia 2013; 175: 421430.
  • 384
    Marques SG, Silva Cde MP, Saldanha PC et al. Isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi from the shell of the Babassu coconut (Orbignya phalerata Martius) in the Amazon region of Maranhao Brazil. Japan J Med Mycol 2006; 47: 305311.
  • 385
    Najafzadeh MJ, Rezusta A, Cameo MI et al. Successful treatment of chromoblastomycosis of 36 years duration caused by Fonsecaea monophora. Med Mycol 2010; 48: 390393.
  • 386
    Najafzadeh MJ, Sun J, Vicente V et al. Fonsecaea nubica sp. nov, a new agent of human chromoblastomycosis revealed using molecular data. Med Mycol 2010; 48: 800806.
  • 387
    Surash S, Tyagi A, De Hoog GS et al. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Fonsecaea monophora. Med Mycol 2005; 43: 465472.
  • 388
    Abliz P, Fukushima K, Takizawa K, Nishimura K. Identification of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and related taxa based on large subunit ribosomal DNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2004; 40: 4149.
  • 389
    Gunde-Cimerman N, Zalar P, de Hoog GS, Plemenitas A. Hypersaline waters in salterns—natural ecological niches for halophilic black yeasts. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2000; 32: 235240.
  • 390
    Zalar P, de Hoog GS, Gunde-Cimerman N. Ecology of halotolerant dothideaceous black yeasts. Stud Mycol 1999; 43: 3848.
  • 391
    Bonifaz A, Badali H, de Hoog GS et al. Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico. Stud Mycol 2008; 61: 7782.
  • 392
    Pegas JR, Criado PR, Lucena SK, de Oliveira MA. Tinea nigra: report of two cases in infants. Pediatr Dermatol 2003; 20: 315317.
  • 393
    Ruiz-Maldonado R, Duran-McKinster C, Tamayo-Sanchez L, Orozco-Covarrubias ML. Dermatosis neglecta: dirt crusts simulating verrucous nevi. Arch Dermatol 1999; 135: 728729.
  • 394
    Tseng SS, Whittier S, Miller SR, Zalar GL. Bilateral tinea nigra plantaris and tinea nigra plantaris mimicking melanoma. Cutis 1999; 64: 265268.
  • 395
    Huber CE, La Berge T, Schwiesow T, Carroll K, Bernstain PS, Mamalis N. Exophiala werneckii endophthalmitis following cataract surgery in an immunocompetent individual. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 2000; 31: 417422.
  • 396
    Ng KP, Soo-Hoo TS, Na SL et al. The mycological and molecular study of Hortaea werneckii isolated from blood and splenic abscess. Mycopathologia 2005; 159: 495500.
  • 397
    Uijthof JM, de Cock AW, de Hoog GS, Quint WG, van Belkum A. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated genotyping of Hortaea werneckii, causative agent of tinea nigra. Mycoses 1994; 37: 307312.
  • 398
    Punithalingam E, Waterston JM. CMI descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria no. 274. Hendersonula toruloidea. Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 1970.
  • 399
    Sigler L, Summerbell RC, Poole L et al. Invasive Nattrassia mangiferae infections: case report, literature review, and therapeutic and taxonomic appraisal. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35: 433440.
  • 400
    Madrid H, Ruiz-Cendoya M, Cano J, Stchigel A, Orofino R, Guarro J. Genotyping and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum isolates from different origins. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009; 34: 351354.
  • 401
    Tan DH, Sigler L, Gibas CF, Fong IW. Disseminated fungal infection in a renal transplant recipient involving Macrophomina phaseolina and Scytalidium dimidiatum: case report and review of taxonomic changes among medically important members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. Med Mycol 2008; 46: 285292.
  • 402
    Hay RJ, Moore MK. Clinical features of superficial fungal infections caused by Hendersonula toruloidea and Scytalidium hyalinum. Br J Dermatol 1984; 110: 673683.
  • 403
    Mariat F, Liautaud B, Liautaud M, Marill FG. Hendersonula toruloidea, causative agent of a fungal verrucous dermatitis observed in Algeria. Sabouraudia 1978; 16: 133140.
  • 404
    Moutran R, Maatouk I, Wehbé J, Abadjian G, Obeid G. Subcutaneous infection spread by Scytalidium (Neoscytalidium) dimidiatum. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2012; 139: 204208.
  • 405
    Nattrass RM. A new species of Hendersonula (H. toruloidea) on deciduous trees in Egypt. Trans Br Mycol Soc 1933; 18: 189198.
  • 406
    Crous PW, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ et al. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botriosphaeriaceae. Stud Mycol 2006; 55: 235253.
  • 407
    Barua P, Barua S, Borkakoty B, Mahanta J. Onychomycosis by Scytalidium dimidiatum in green tea leaf pluckers: report of two cases. Mycopathologia 2007; 164: 193195.
  • 408
    Cursi IB, Silva RT, Succi IB, Bernardes-Engemann AR, Orofino-Costa R. Onychomycosis due to Neoscytalidium treated with oral terbinafine, ciclopirox nail lacquer and nail abrasion: a pilot study of 25 patients. Mycopathologia 2013; 175: 7582.
  • 409
    Guarro J, Pujol I, Aguilar C, Ortoneda M. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of nondermatophytic keratinophilic fungi. In: Kushwaha RKS, Guarro J, eds, Biology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi. Bilbao, Spain: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia, 2000; 142147.
  • 410
    Ruíz-Cendoya M, Madrid H, Pastor J, Guarro J. Evaluation of antifungal therapy in a neutropenic murine model of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum infection. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2010; 35: 152155.
  • 411
    Samerpitak K, Van der Linde E, Choi HJ et al. Taxonomy of Ochroconis, genus including opportunistic pathogens on humans and animals. Fungal Divers 2013. doi: 10.1007/s13225-013-0253-6.
  • 412
    Odell JA, Alvarez S, Cvitkovich DG, Cortese DA, McComb BL. Multiple lung abscesses due to Ochroconis gallopavum, a dematiaceous fungus, in a nonimmunocompromised wood pulp worker. Chest 2000; 118: 15031505.
  • 413
    Kralovic SM, Rhodes JC. Pheohyphomycosis caused by Dactylaria (human Dactylariosis)—report of a case with review of the literature. J Infect 1995; 31: 107113.
  • 414
    Rippon JW, Gerhold R, Heath M. Thermophillic and thermotolerant fungi isolated from the thermal effluent of nuclear power generating reactors: dispersal of human opportunistic and veterinary pathogenic fungi. Mycopathologia 1980; 70: 169179.
  • 415
    Shoham S, Pic-Aluas L, Taylor J et al. Transplant-associated Ochroconis gallopava infections. Transpl Infect Dis 2008; 10: 442448.
  • 416
    Tansey MR, Fliermans CB, Kern CD. Aerosol dissemination of veterinary pathogenic and human opportunistic thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi from thermal effluents of nuclear production reactors. Mycopathologia 1979; 69: 91115.
  • 417
    Waldrip DW, Padhye AA, Ajello L et al. Isolation of Dactylaria gallopava from broiler-house litter. Avian Dis 1974; 18: 445451.
  • 418
    Sides EH III, Benson JD, Padhye AA. Phaeohyphomycotic brain abscess due to Ochroconis gallopavum in a patient with malignant lymphoma of a large cell type. J Med Vet Mycol 1991; 29: 317322.
  • 419
    Terreni AA, Disalvo AF, Baker AS et al. Disseminated Dactylaria gallopava infection in a diabetic patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia of the T-cell type. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94: 104107.
  • 420
    Bravo LO, Ngamy V. Ochroconis gallopavum and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare in an immunocompetent patient. Chest 2004; 126: 975S.
  • 421
    Fader RC, McGinnis MR. Infections caused by dematiaceous fungi: chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1988; 2: 925938.
  • 422
    Fukushima N, Mannen K, Okamoto S, Shinogi T, Nishimoto K et al. Disseminated Ochroconis gallopavum infection in a chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature on hematological malignancies. Intern Med 2005; 44: 879882.
  • 423
    Jenney A, Maslen M, Bergin P, Tang SK, Esmore D, Fuller A. Pulmonary infection due to Ochroconis gallopavum treated successfully after orthotopic heart transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 26: 236237.
  • 424
    Malani PN, Bleicher JJ, Kauffman CA et al. Disseminated Dactylaria constricta infection in a renal transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis 2001; 3: 4043.
  • 425
    Randall CJ, Owen DM, Kirkpatrick KS. Encephalitis in broiler chickens caused by a hyphomycete resembling Dactylaria gallopava. Avian Pathol 1981; 10: 3141.
  • 426
    Wang TK, Chiu W, Chim S, Chan TM, Wong SS, Ho PL. Disseminated Ochroconis gallopavum infection in a renal transplant recipient: the first reported case and a review of the literature. Clin Nephrol 2003; 60: 415423.
  • 427
    Wong JS, Schousboe MI, Metcalf SS et al. Ochroconis gallopava peritonitis in a cardiac transplant patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Transpl Infect Dis 2010; 12: 455458.
  • 428
    Brokalaki EI, Sommerwerck U, von Heinegg EH, Hillen U. Ochroconis gallopavum infection in a lung transplant recipient: report of a case. Transplant Proc 2012; 44: 27782780.
  • 429
    Cardeau-Desangles I, Fabre A, Cointault O et al. Disseminated Ochroconis gallopava infection in a heart transplant patient. Transpl Infect Dis 2013; 15: E115E118.
  • 430
    Mayer N, Bastani B. A case of pulmonary cavitary lesion due to Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a renal transplant patient. Nephrology 2009; 14: 262.
  • 431
    Qureshi ZA, Kwak EJ, Nguyen MH, Silveira FP. Ochroconis gallopava: a dematiaceous mold causing infections in transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 2012; 26: E17E23.
  • 432
    Bowyer JD, Johnson EM, Horn EH et al. Ochroconis gallopava endophthalmitis in fludarabine treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 2000; 84: 117.
  • 433
    Vukmir RB, Kusne S, Linden P et al. Successful therapy for cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Dactylaria gallopava in a liver transplant recipient. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 19: 714719.
  • 434
    Meriden Z, Marr KA, Lederman HM et al. Ochroconis gallopava infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease: case report and review of the literature. Med Mycol 2012; 50: 883889.
  • 435
    Fukushiro R, Udagawa S, Kawashima Y, Kawamura Y. Subcutaneous abscesses caused by Ochroconis gallopavum. J Med Vet Mycol 1986; 24: 175182.
  • 436
    Kumaran MS, Bhagwan S, Savio J et al. Disseminated cutaneous Ochroconis gallopava infection in an immunocompetent host: an unusual concurrence—a case report and review of cases reported. Int J Dermatol 2013; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05841.x.
  • 437
    Ge YP, Lv GX, Shen YN et al. First report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Ochroconis tshawytschae in an immunocompetent patient. Med Mycol 2012; 50: 637640.
  • 438
    Mostert L, Groenewald JZ, Summerbell RC et al. Species of Phaeoacremonium associated with infections in humans and environmental reservoirs in infected woody plants. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 17521767.
  • 439
    Mostert L et al. Taxonomy and pathology of Tonginia and its Phaeocacremonium anamorphs. Stud Mycol 2006; 54: 1113.
  • 440
    Padhye AA, Davis MS, Baer D et al. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phaeoacremonium inflatipes. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 27632765.
  • 441
    Fincher RM, Fisher JF, Padhye AA, Ajello L, Steele JC Jr. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic abscess caused by Phialophora parasitica in a renal allograft recipient. J Med Vet Mycol 1988; 26: 311314.
  • 442
    Reyes FA, Buchman MT. Phialophora richardsiae infection mimicking a soft tissue mass of a finger. J Hand Surg [Br] 1986; 11: 274.
  • 443
    Torstrick RF, Harrison K, Heckman JD et al. Chronic bursitis caused by Phialophora richardsiae. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1979; 61: 772774.
  • 444
    Aroca A, Raposo R. PCR-based strategy to detect and identify species of Phaeoacremonium causing grapevine diseases. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007; 73: 29112918.
  • 445
    Espinel-Ingroff A, Boyle K, Sheehan DJ. In vitro antifungal activities of voriconazole and reference agents as determined by NCCLS methods: review of the literature. Mycopathologia 2001; 150: 101115.
  • 446
    Espinel-Ingroff A. In vitro antifungal activities of anidulafungin and micafungin, licensed agents and the investigational triazole posaconazole as determined by NCCLS methods for 12,052 fungal isolates: review of the literature. Rev Iberoam Micol 2003; 20: 121136.
  • 447
    Tullio V, Banche G, Allizond V et al. Non-dermatophyte moulds as skin and nail foot mycosis agents: Phoma herbarum, Chaetomium globosum and Microascus cinereus. Fungal Biol 2010; 114: 345349.
  • 448
    Boerema GH, de Gruytere J, Noordeloos ME, Hamers MEC. Phoma identification manual. Differentiation of specific and infra-specific taxa in culture. Wallingford, UK: Cabi Publishing, 2004; 470.
  • 449
    Arrese JE, Pierard-Franchimont C, Pierard GE. Unusual mould infection of the human stratum corneum. J Med Vet Mycol 1997; 35: 225227.
  • 450
    Everett JE, Busick NP, Sielaff T, Wahoff DC, Dunn DL. A deeply invasive Phoma species infection in a renal transplant recipient. Transplant Proc 2003; 35: 13871389.
  • 451
    Hirsh AH, Schiff TA. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by an unusual pathogen: Phoma species. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 679680.
  • 452
    Rai MK. Phoma sorghina infection in human being. Mycopathologia 1989; 105: 167170.
  • 453
    Rosen T, Rinaldi MJ, Tschen JA, Stern JK, Cernoch P. Cutaneous lesions due to Pleurophoma (Phoma) complex. South Med J 1996; 89: 431433.
  • 454
    Shukla NP, Rajak RK, Agarwal GP, Gupta DK. Phoma minutispora as a human pathogen. Mykosen 1984; 27: 255258.
  • 455
    Young NA, Kwon-Chung KJ, Freeman J. Subcutaneous abscess caused by Phoma sp. resembling Pyrenochaeta romeroi: unique fungal infection occurring in immunosuppressed recipient of renal allograft. Am J Clin Pathol 1973; 59: 810816.
  • 456
    Zaitz C, Heins-Vaccari EM, de Freitas RS et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phoma cava. Report of a case and review of the literature. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1997; 39: 4348.
  • 457
    Errera MH, Barale PO, Nourry H et al. Usefulness of voriconazole in treatment of Phoma glomerata after penetrating injury. J Fr Ophtalmol 2008; 31: 6266.
  • 458
    Rishi K, Font RL. Keratitis caused by an unusual fungus, Phoma species. Cornea 2003; 22: 166168.
  • 459
    Balis E, Velegraki A, Fragou A, Pefanis A, Kalabokas T, Moutokalakis T. Lung mass caused by Phoma exigua. Scand J Infect Dis 2006; 38: 552555.
  • 460
    Roehm CE, Salazar JC, Hagstrom N, Valdez TA. Phoma and Acremonium invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in congenital acute lymphocytic leukemia and literature review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2012; 76: 13871391.
  • 461
    Baker JG, Salkin IF, Forgacs P, Haines JH, Kemna ME. First report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis of the foot caused by Phoma minutella. J Clin Microbiol 1987; 25: 23952397.
  • 462
    Badali H, Chander J, Gulati N et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cyst caused by Pyrenochaeta romeroi. Med Mycol 2010; 48: 763768.
  • 463
    Baylet R, Camain R, Chabal J, Izarn R. Recent contribution to the study of mycetoma in Senegal. Neotestudina rosatii, Pyrenochaeta romeroi, Aspergillus nidulans. Bull Soc Med Afr Noire Lang Fr 1968; 13: 311313.
  • 464
    English MP. Infection of the finger-nail by Pyrenochaeta unguishominis. Br J Dermatol 1980; 103: 9193.
  • 465
    Ferrer C, Perez-Santonja JJ, Rodriguez AE et al. New Pyrenochaeta species causing keratitis. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 15951598.
  • 466
    Girard C, Dereure O, Rispail P, Durand L, Guilhou JJ. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi in a patient with leprosy. Acta Derm Venereol 2004; 84: 154155.
  • 467
    Serrano JA, Pisano ID, Lopez FA. Black grain minimycetoma caused by Pyrenochaeta mackinnonii, the first clinical case of eumycetoma reported in Barinas state, Venezuela. J Mycol Med 1998; 8: 3439.
  • 468
    Thammayya A, Sanyal M, Basu N. Pyrenochaeta romeroi causing mycetoma pedis in India. J Indian Med Assoc 1979; 73: 6667.
  • 469
    De Gruyter J, Aveskamp MM, Woudenberg JHC et al. Molecular phylogeny of Phoma and allied anamorph genera: towards a reclassification of the Phoma complex. Mycol Res 2009; 113: 508519.
  • 470
    Andre M, Brumpt V, Destombes P, Segretain G. Fungal mycetoma with black grains due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi in Cambodia. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1968; 61: 108112.
  • 471
    Borelli D. Opportunistic fungi as producers of gray colonies and mycetomata. Dermatologica 1979; 159: 168174.
  • 472
    David-Chausse J, Texier L, Darrasse H, Moulinier C. Autochthonous mycetoma of the foot due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 1968; 75: 452453.
  • 473
    Sutton DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG. Guide to clinically significant fungi. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1998.
  • 474
    de Hoog GS. Rhinocladiella and allied genera. Stud Mycol 1977; 15: 1140.
  • 475
    Kanj SS, Amr SS, Roberts GD. Ramichloridium mackenziei brain abscess: report of two cases and review of the literature. Med Mycol 2001; 39: 97102.
  • 476
    del Palacio-Hernanz A, Moore MK, Campbell CK, del Palacio-Medel A, Del Castillo R. Infection of the central nervous system by Rhinocladiella atrovirens in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Med Vet Mycol 1989; 27: 127130.
  • 477
    Naim UR, Mahgoub ES, Chagla AH. Fatal brain abscesses caused by Ramichloridium obovoideum: report of three cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1988; 93: 9295.
  • 478
    Badali H, Chander J, Bansal S et al. First autochthonous case of Rhinocladiella mackenziei cerebral abscess outside the Middle East. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 646649.
  • 479
    Campbell CK, Al-Hedaithy SSA. Phaeohyphomycosis of the brain caused by Ramichloridium mackenziei sp. nov. in Middle Eastern countries. J Med Vet Mycol 1993; 31: 325332.
  • 480
    Badali H, Bonifaz A, Barrón-Tapia T et al. Rhinocladiella aquaspersa, proven agent of verrucous skin infection and a novel type of chromoblastomycosis. Med Mycol 2010; 48: 696703.
  • 481
    Podnos YD, Anastasio P, De La ML, Kim RB. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Ramichloridium obovoideum (Ramichloridium mackenziei): case report. Neurosurgery 1999; 45: 372375.
  • 482
    Sutton DA, Slifkin M, Yakulis R, Rinaldi MG. U.S. case report of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Ramichloridium obovoideum (R. mackenziei): criteria for identification, therapy, and review of other known dematiaceous neurotropic taxa. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 708715.
  • 483
    Kashgari TQ, Al-Miniawi H, Moawad Hanna MK. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Ramichloridium mackenziei in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 2000; 20: 457460.
  • 484
    Khan ZU, Lamdhade SJ, Johny M et al. Additional case of Ramichloridium mackenziei cerebral phaeohyphomycosis from the Middle East. Med Mycol 2002; 40: 429433.
  • 485
    Badali H, de Hoog GS, Curfs-Breuker I, Meis JF. In vitro activities of antifungal drugs against Rhinocladiella mackenziei, an agent of fatal brain infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65: 175177.
  • 486
    Ayadi A, Huerre MR, de Bievre C. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronea botryosa. Lancet 1995; 346: 17031704.
  • 487
    Chen YT, Lin HC, Huang CC, Lo YH. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by an itraconazole and amphotericin B resistant strain of Veronaeae botryosa. Int J Dermatol 2006; 45: 429432.
  • 488
    Cunha Filho RR, Schwartz J, Rehn M, Vettotato G, Resende MA. Feo-hifomicose causada por Veronaea botryosa: relato de dois casos. An Bras Dermatol 2005; 80: 5356.
  • 489
    Kondo Y, Hiruma M, Matsushita A, Matsuba S, Nishimura K, Takamori K. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea botryosa observed as sclerotic cells in tissue. Int J Dermatol 2007; 46: 625627.
  • 490
    Matsushita A, Jilong L, Hiruma M et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea botryosa in the People's Republic of China. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 22192222.
  • 491
    Sang H, Zheng XE, Kong QT et al. A rare complication of ear piercing: a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea botryosa in China. Med Mycol 2011; 49: 296302.
  • 492
    Xue Y, Chen H, Hu S et al. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis on the auricle due to Veronaea botryosa. Eur J Dermatol 2011; 21: 418419.
  • 493
    Sutton DA, Rinaldi MG, Kielhofner M. First U.S. report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea botryosa in a heart transplant recipient and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 28432846.
  • 494
    Badali H, Yazdanparast SA, Bonifaz A et al. Veronaea botryosa: molecular identification with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and in vitro antifungal susceptibility. Mycopathologia 2013; 175: 505513.