Guidelines for using human event-related potentials to study cognition: Recording standards and publication criteria


Address reprint requests to: Terence W. Picton, Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, Ontario, M6A 2E1, Canada. E-mail:


Event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from the human scalp can provide important information about how the human brain normally processes information and about how this processing may go awry in neurological or psychiatric disorders. Scientists using or studying ERPs must strive to overcome the many technical problems that can occur in the recording and analysis of these potentials. The methods and the results of these ERP studies must be published in a way that allows other scientists to understand exactly what was done so that they can, if necessary, replicate the experiments. The data must then be analyzed and presented in a way that allows different studies to be compared readily. This paper presents guidelines for recording ERPs and criteria for publishing the results.