• P300;
  • Dipole source analysis;
  • Early diagnosis;
  • Differential diagnosis;
  • Dementia

Accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with reliable and noninvasive methods is of great importance for clinical practice as effective and specific antidementive therapies become available. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of event-related P300 in the early diagnosis of AD. Thirty patients with AD, 26 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from our Memory Clinic and 26 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were studied with event-related P300 potentials. Amplitudes of temporo-basal dipoles (TB-P300) were significantly diminished in AD compared to HC and MCI. Furthermore, latencies of temporo-superior dipoles (TS-P300) were significantly prolonged in AD compared with HC. Sensitivity was 90.0% for the differentiation of patients with AD from HC (specificity 79.1%) using reduced TB-P300 amplitudes and prolonged TS-P300 latencies. Similar results were found using Pz amplitudes as well as Fz latencies. Our data suggest that TB-P300 amplitudes and TS-P300 latencies may be an accurate clinically available, nonexpensive, noninvasive, and reliable marker for AD.