A periconceptional energy-rich dietary pattern is associated with early fetal growth: the Generation R study

Authors

  • MI Bouwland-Both,

    1. The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • RPM Steegers-Theunissen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    2. Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    • The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • M Vujkovic,

    1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • EMEH Lesaffre,

    1. Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • DO Mook-Kanamori,

    1. The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    3. Department of Paediatrics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • A Hofman,

    1. Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • J Lindemans,

    1. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • H Russcher,

    1. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • VWV Jaddoe,

    1. The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    3. Department of Paediatrics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • EAP Steegers

    1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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Correspondence: RPM Steegers-Theunissen, Professor in Periconception Epidemiology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Ee-building Room 2271a, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Email r.steegers@erasmusmc.nl

Abstract

Objective

To identify periconceptional maternal dietary patterns associated with crown–rump length (CRL), estimated fetal weight (EFW) and birthweight.

Design

Population-based prospective birth cohort study.

Setting

Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Participants

For this study, 847 pregnant Dutch women were eligible. Women were included between 2001 and 2005.

Methods

Information on nutritional intake was collected by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. For extracting dietary patterns, principal component factor analysis was used. Fetal growth was assessed using ultrasound measurements. Information on birth outcomes was retrieved from medical records. Multivariate regression analyses were used.

Main outcome measures

Crown-to-rump length, estimated fetal weight in second and third trimester and birthweight.

Results

An ‘energy-rich dietary pattern’ was identified, characterised by high intakes of bread, margarine and nuts. A significant association was shown between a high adherence to this dietary pattern (difference, mm: 2.15, 95% confidence interval 0.79–3.50) and CRL (linear trend analyses = 0.015). No association was revealed between increasing adherence to this dietary pattern and EFW in second or third trimester, or birthweight.

Conclusion

This study suggests that increasing adherence to an energy-rich dietary pattern is associated with increased CRL in the first trimester.

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