Correction added on 12 August 2013, after first online publication: Dr A Chortatos corrected to Mr A Chortatos, and in Table 3 the P value for Carbohydrates 0.00ABC corrected to 0.001ABC.
Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: associations with maternal gestational diet and lifestyle factors in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study
Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013
© 2013 RCOG
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Volume 120, Issue 13, pages 1642–1653, December 2013
How to Cite
Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: associations with maternal gestational diet and lifestyle factors in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. BJOG 2013 DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12406., , , , , .
- Issue published online: 11 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 MAY 2013
- the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo
- the Throne-Holst Foundation for Nutrition Research
- the Grethe Harbitz Legacy
- maternal diet;
- nausea and vomiting in pregnancy
To investigate primarily the dietary intake, as well as demographics and selected lifestyle factors, of women experiencing nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, nausea only, or women who are symptom free.
Prospective cohort study.
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a population-based pregnancy cohort.
Analyses were based on 51 675 Norwegian pregnancies.
Dietary intake was assessed by a self-reported food frequency questionnaire answered in the first trimester of pregnancy, as were data regarding nausea and vomiting. Chi-squared tests, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression were used.
Main outcome measures
Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), gestational weight gain (GWG), and dietary intake.
We found that 17 070 (33%) women experienced NVP, 20 371 (39%) experienced only nausea, and 14 234 (28%) were symptom free. Women with NVP were younger and heavier at pregnancy onset, with the lowest GWG and highest energy intake during pregnancy, primarily from carbohydrates and added sugars, compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis of GWG and group adjusted for body mass index (BMI), gestational length, smoking during pregnancy, and energy intake, a significant interaction was found between BMI and group (P < 0.001). A significant effect of group (P < 0.001) was found in all BMI strata, except among underweight women (P = 0.65).
Our study suggests that women with NVP are characterised by high intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar, primarily from sugar-containing soft drinks. Whether higher intakes of carbohydrates are a response aimed to alleviate symptoms, or are actually provoking the condition, is not known.