• 1
    Khan KS, Wojdyla D, Say L, Gülmezoglu AM, Van Look PF. WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review. Lancet 2003;367:106674.
  • 2
    Hogan MC, Foreman KJ, Naghavi M, Ahn SY, Wang M, Makela SM, et al. Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1990–2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5. Lancet 2010;375:160923.
  • 3
    WHO, Unicef, UNFPA & World bank. Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2008. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.
  • 4
    Geller SE, Goudar SS, Adams MG, Naik VA, Patel A, Bellad MB, et al. Factors associated with acute postpartum hemorrhage in low-risk women delivering in rural India. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2008;101:949.
  • 5
    Miller S, Lester F, Hensleigh P. Prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: new advances for low-resource settings. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004;49:28392.
  • 6
    Geller SE, Adams MG, Kelly PJ, Kodkany BS, Derman RJ. Postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor settings. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2009;92:20211.
  • 7
    Karoshi M, Keith L. Challenges in managing postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor countries. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2009;52:28598.
  • 8
    Mobeen N, Durocher J, Zuberi N, Jahan N, Blum J, Wasim S, et al. Administration of misoprostol by trained traditional birth attendants to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in homebirths in Pakistan: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BJOG 2011;118:35361.
  • 9
    World Health Organization. Proportion of Births Attended by a Skilled Health Worker. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
  • 10
    Geller SE, Adams MG, Miller S. A continuum of care model for postpartum hemorrhage. Int J Fertil Womens Med 2007;52:97105.
  • 11
    Prata N, Mbaruku G, Campbell C. Using the kanga to measure postpartum blood loss. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2005;89:4950.
  • 12
    Patel A, Goudar SS, Geller SE, Kodkany BS, Edlavitch SA, Wagh K, et al. Drape estimation vs. visual assessment for estimating postpartum hemorrhage. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006;93:2204.
  • 13
    Bij de Vaate A, Coleman R, Manneh H, Walraven G. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of traditional birth attendants in Gambia in the prevention, recognition and management of postpartum haemorrhage. Midwifery 2002;18:311.
  • 14
    Edmonds JK, Hruschka D, Sibley LM. A comparison of excessive postpartum blood loss estimates among three subgroups of women attending births in Matlab, Bangladesh. J Midwifery Womens Health 2010;55:37882.
  • 15
    Langenbach C. Misoprostol in prevention postpartum hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006;92:108.
  • 16
    Derman RJ, Kodkany BS, Goudar SS, Geller SE, Naik VA, Bellad MB, et al. Oral misoprostol in preventing postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor communities: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;368:124853.
  • 17
    Alfirevic Z, Blum J, Walraven G, Weeks A, Winikoff B. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage with misoprostol. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2007;99:S198201.
  • 18
    World Health Organization. Unedited Report of the 18th Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011.
  • 19
    Høj L, Cardoso P, Nielsen BB, Hvidman L, Nielsen J, Aaby P. Effect of sublingual misoprostol on severe postpartum hemorrhage in a primary health centre in Guinea-Bissau: randomized double blind clinical trial. BMJ 2005;331:723.
  • 20
    World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2012. Accessed 3 September 2013.
  • 21
    Kapungu CT, Mensah-Homiah J, Akosah E, Asare G, Carnahan LR, Frimpong M, et al. A community-based continuum of care model for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in rural Ghana. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2013;120:1569.
  • 22
    Mir AM, Wajid A, Gull S. Helping rural women in Pakistan to prevent postpartum hemorrhage: a quasi experimental study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012;12:120. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-120.
  • 23
    Rajbhandari S, Hodgins S, Sanghvi H, McPherson R, Pradhan YV, Baqui AH, Misoprostol Study Group. Expanding uterotonic protection following childbirth through community-based distribution of misoprostol: operations research study in Nepal. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2010;108:2828.
  • 24
    Sanghvi H, Ansari N, Prata NJ, Gibson H, Ehsan AT, Smith JM. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage at home birth in Afghanistan. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2010;108:27681.
  • 25
    United Nations Development Group. MDG-4, MDG-5, MDG-6: Child mortality, maternal health, and combatting disease. MDG Good Practices. 2010. Accessed 3 September 2013.
  • 26
    Millennium Villages Project. Bonsaaso Village Health and Nutrition Survey Dataset, collected Jul-Dec 2011. 2011. Unpublished household survey data.
  • 27
    Goudar SS, Chakraborty H, Edlavitch SA, Naik VA, Bellad MB, Patted SS, et al. Variation in the postpartum hemorrhage rate in a clinical trial of oral misoprostol. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2008;21:55964.