• 1
    Van Altvorst MEWA, Chan EHY, Taylor RS, Kenny LC, Myers JE, Dekker GA, et al. Antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin and maternal cigarette smoking beyond the first trimester. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2012;52:1616.
  • 2
    Chan CC, To WW. Antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin–what is its clinical significance? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999;78:18690.
  • 3
    Mukherjee S. Antepartum haemorrhage. Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Med 2008;18:335.
  • 4
    Dutta DK. Dutta's Obstetric Haemorrhage Made Easy, 1st edn. Daryaganj, New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, 2007.
  • 5
    Magann EF, Cummings JE, Niederhauser A, Rodriguez-Thompson D, McCormack R, Chauhan SP. Antepartum bleeding of unknown origin in the second half of pregnancy: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005;60:7415.
  • 6
    Arafa M, Abdel-Fataah M, Zeid HA, el-Khouly A. Outcomes of pregnancies complicated by early vaginal bleeding. East Mediterr Health J 2000;6:45764.
  • 7
    Funderburk SJ, Guthrie D, Meldrum D. Outcome of pregnancies complicated by early vaginal bleeding. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1980;87:1005.
  • 8
    Harlev A, Levy A, Zaulan Y, Koifman A, Mazor M, Wiznitzer A, et al. Idiopathic bleeding during the second half of pregnancy as a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2008;21:3315.
  • 9
    Koifman A, Levy A, Zaulan Y, Harlev A, Mazor M, Wiznitzer A, et al. The clinical significance of bleeding during the second trimester of pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2008;278:4751.
  • 10
    McCormack RA, Doherty DA, Magann EF, Hutchinson M, Newnham JP. Antepartum bleeding of unknown origin in the second half of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. BJOG 2008;115:14517.
  • 11
    Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank (AMND). Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. 2008; Available at: []. Accessed 21 June 2012.
  • 12
    Bhattacharya S, Campbell DM. The incidence of severe complications of preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 2005;24:18190.
  • 13
    Berkowitz GS, Harlap S, Beck GJ, Freeman DH, Baras M. Early gestational bleeding and pregnancy outcome: a multivariable analysis. Int J Epidemiol 1983;12:16573.
  • 14
    Signore CC, Sood AK, Richards DS. Second-trimester vaginal bleeding: correlation of ultrasonographic findings with perinatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178:33640.
  • 15
    Sipila P, Hartikainen-Sorri AL, Oja H, Von Wendt L. Perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by vaginal bleeding. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1992;99:95963.
  • 16
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Induction of Labour. NICE clinical guideline 70. London: National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health; 2008.
  • 17
    Ogueh O, Johnson MR. What is the value of hospitalisation in antepartum haemorrhage of uncertain origin? J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;18:1202.
  • 18
    Lisonkova S, Sabr Y, Butler B, Joseph K. International comparisons of preterm birth: higher rates of late preterm birth are associated with lower rates of stillbirth and neonatal death. BJOG 2012;119:16309.