Nicola Dean, Chris Bain, Phil Toozs-Hobson, Alison McDonald, Gladys McPherson, Karen Richardson.
Twelve-year follow-up of conservative management of postnatal urinary and faecal incontinence and prolapse outcomes: randomised controlled trial
Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013
© 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Volume 121, Issue 1, pages 112–120, January 2014
How to Cite
Twelve-year follow-up of conservative management of postnatal urinary and faecal incontinence and prolapse outcomes: randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2014;121:112–120., , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 20 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 JUL 2013
- Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, London, UK; Health Research Council of New Zealand. Grant Number: RG 819/06
- New Zealand Lottery Grant Board
- Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen
- Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates
- Bladder training;
- faecal incontinence;
- pelvic floor dysfunction;
- pelvic floor muscle training;
- pelvic organ prolapse;
- randomised controlled trial;
- urinary incontinence
To determine the long-term (12-year) effects of a conservative nurse-led intervention for postnatal urinary incontinence.
Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.
Community-based intervention in three centres (in the UK and New Zealand).
A cohort of 747 women with urinary incontinence at 3 months after childbirth, of whom 471 (63%) were followed up after 12 years.
Women were randomly allocated to active conservative treatment after delivery (pelvic floor muscle training and bladder training), or to a control group receiving standard care.
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of urinary incontinence (primary outcome) and faecal incontinence, symptoms and signs of prolapse, and performance of pelvic floor muscle training at 12 years.
The significant improvements relative to controls that had been found in urinary incontinence (60 versus 69%; risk difference, RD, −9.1%; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, −17.3 to −1.0%) and faecal incontinence (4 versus 11%; RD −6.1%; 95% CI −10.8 to −1.6%) at 1 year did not persist for urinary incontinence (83 versus 80%; RD 2.1%; 95% CI −4.9 to 9.1%) or faecal incontinence (19 versus 15%; RD 4.3%; 95% CI −2.5 to 11.0%) at the 12–year follow up, irrespective of incontinence severity at trial entry. The prevalence of prolapse symptoms or objectively measured pelvic organ prolapse also did not differ between the groups. In the short term the intervention motivated more women to perform pelvic floor muscle training (83 versus 55%), but this fell in both groups by 12 years (52 versus 49%).
The moderate short-term benefits of a brief nurse-led conservative treatment for postnatal urinary incontinence did not persist. About four-fifths of women with urinary incontinence 3 months after childbirth still had this problem 12 years later.