• 1
    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Birth after previous caesarean section. Green-Top Guideline No. 45. London: RCOG; 2007.
  • 2
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Vaginal Birth after Previous Cesarean Delivery. Washington, DC: ACOG, 2010.
  • 3
    MacDorman M, Declercq E, Menacker F. Recent trends and patterns in cesarean and vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) deliveries in the United States. Clin Perinatol 2011;38:17992.
  • 4
    Homer CS, Johnston R, Foureur MJ. Birth after caesarean section: changes over a nine-year period in one Australian state. Midwifery 2011;27:1659.
  • 5
    Black C, Kaye J, Jick H. Cesarean delivery in the United Kingdom: time trends in the general practice research database. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:1515.
  • 6
    Liu S, Rusen I, Joseph K, Liston R, Kramer M, Wen S, et al. Recent trends in caesarean delivery rates and indications for caesarean delivery in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004;268:73542.
  • 7
    Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. Caesarean sections. Postnote No. 184. London: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology; 2002. pp. 14. []. Accessed 30 October 2013.
  • 8
    Lancet Editorial. Caesarean section on the rise. Lancet 2000;356:1697.
  • 9
    Caesarean sections now account for a QUARTER of all births. 2012 [–older-mothers-reason-why.html]. Accessed 24 April 2013.
  • 10
    Spong CY. To VBAC or not to VBAC. PLoS Med 2012;9:e1001191.
  • 11
    Cox KJ. Providers' perspectives on the vaginal birth after cesarean guidelines in Florida, United States: a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2011;11:72.
  • 12
    Dodd JM, Crowther CA. Elective repeat caesarean section versus induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;5:CD004906.
  • 13
    Landon MB, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, Leindecker S, Varner MW, et al. Maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery. N Engl J Med 2004;351:25819.
  • 14
    Lydon-Rochelle MT, Cahill AG, Spong CY. Birth after previous cesarean delivery: short-term maternal outcomes. Semin Perinatol 2010;34:24957.
  • 15
    Gilbert SA, Grobman WA, Landon MB, Spong CY, Rouse DJ, Leveno KJ, et al. Elective repeat cesarean delivery compared with spontaneous trial of labor after a prior cesarean delivery: a propensity score analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012;206:311e19.
  • 16
    Chauhan SP, Martin JN Jr, Henrichs CE, Morrison JC, Magann EF. Maternal and perinatal complications with uterine rupture in 142,075 patients who attempted vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: a review of the literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:40817.
  • 17
    Guise JM. Vaginal delivery after caesarean section. BMJ 2004;329:35960.
  • 18
    Mozurkewich EL, Hutton EK. Elective repeat cesarean delivery versus trial of labor: a meta-analysis of the literature from 1989 to 1999. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:118797.
  • 19
    Smith GC, Pell JP, Cameron AD, Dobbie R. Risk of perinatal death associated with labor after previous cesarean delivery in uncomplicated term pregnancies. J Am Med Assoc 2002;287:268490.
  • 20
    Wen SW, Rusen ID, Walker M, Liston R, Kramer MS, Baskett T, et al. Comparison of maternal mortality and morbidity between trial of labor and elective cesarean section among women with previous cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:12639.
  • 21
    Grobman WA, Lai Y, Landon MB, Spong CY, Leveno KJ, Rouse DJ, et al. Development of a nomogram for prediction of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2007;109:80612.
  • 22
    Hollard AL, Wing DA, Chung JH, Rumney PJ, Saul L, Nageotte MP, et al. Ethnic disparity in the success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2006;19:4837.
  • 23
    King DE, Lahiri K. Socioeconomic factors and the odds of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. J Am Med Assoc 1994;272:5249.
  • 24
    Cahill AG, Stamilio DM, Odibo AO, Peipert J, Stevens E, Macones GA. Racial disparity in the success and complications of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111:6548.
  • 25
    Grobman WA, Lai Y, Landon MB, Spong CY, Rouse DJ, Varner MW, et al. The change in the rate of vaginal birth after caesarean section. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2011;25:3743.
  • 26
    Srinivas SK, Stamilio DM, Sammel MD, Stevens EJ, Peipert JF, Odibo AO, et al. Vaginal birth after caesarean delivery: does maternal age affect safety and success? Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2007;21:11420.
  • 27
    Hibbard JU, Gilbert S, Landon MB, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, et al. Trial of labor or repeat cesarean delivery in women with morbid obesity and previous cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:12533.
  • 28
    World Health Organization (WHO). International Classification of Diseases (ICDs). 2012 []. Accessed 17 April 2013.
  • 29
    Office for population censuses and surveys classification, 4th Revision (OPCS4). 2012 []. Accessed 17 April 2013.
  • 30
    Office for National Statistics (ONS). Ethnicity and National Identity in England and Wales 2011. London: Office for National Statistics, 2012.
  • 31
    Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. The English Indices of Deprivation 2004: Summary (Revised). []. Accessed 5 April 2013.
  • 32
    Spiegelhalter DJ. Funnel plots for comparing institutional performance. Stat Med 2005;24:1185202.
  • 33
    Birthplace in England Collaborative Group, Brocklehurst P, Hardy P, Hollowell J, Linsell L, Macfarlane A, McCourt C, et al. Perinatal and maternal outcomes by planned place of birth for healthy women with low risk pregnancies: the Birthplace in England national prospective cohort study. BMJ 2011;343:d7400.
  • 34
    Smith GC, White IR, Pell JP, Dobbie R. Predicting cesarean section and uterine rupture among women attempting vaginal birth after prior cesarean section. PLoS Med 2005;2:e252.
  • 35
    Vinueza CA, Chauhan SP, Barker L, Hendrix NW, Scardo JA. Predicting the success of a trial of labor with a simple scoring system. J Reprod Med 2000;45:3326.
  • 36
    Factsheet on: Tobacco and Ethnic Minorities: Action on Smoking and Health, London: ASH, 2011.
  • 37
    Gatineau M, Mathrani S. Obesity and Ethnicity. Oxford: National Obesity Observatory, 2011.
  • 38
    Lydon-Rochelle MT, Holt VL, Nelson JC, Cardenas V, Gardella C, Easterling TR, et al. Accuracy of reporting maternal in-hospital diagnoses and intrapartum procedures in Washington State linked birth records. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2005;19:46071.
  • 39
    Roberts CL, Bell JC, Ford JB, Morris JM. Monitoring the quality of maternity care: how well are labour and delivery events reported in population health data? Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2009;23:14452.
  • 40
    Yasmeen S, Romano PS, Schembri ME, Keyzer JM, Gilbert WM. Accuracy of obstetric diagnoses and procedures in hospital discharge data. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:9921001.
  • 41
    Knight H, Gurol-Urganci I, Mahmood T, Templeton A, Richmond D, van der Meulen J, et al. Evaluating maternity care using national routine datasets: how are statistics affected by the quality of data on method of delivery? BMC Health Serv Res 2013;13:2008.
  • 42
    Chen JS, Roberts CL, Simpson JM, Ford JB. Use of hospitalisation history (lookback) to determine prevalence of chronic diseases: impact on modelling of risk factors for haemorrhage in pregnancy. BMC Med Res Methodol 2011;11:68.
  • 43
    Preen DB, Holman CD, Spilsbury K, Semmens JB, Brameld KJ. Length of comorbidity lookback period affected regression model performance of administrative health data. J Clin Epidemiol 2006;59:9406.
  • 44
    Cromwell D, Knight H, Gurol-Urganci I. Parity can be derived for women giving birth using historical records in administrative hospital data. J Clin Epidemiol 2013 (forthcoming).
  • 45
    Gregory KD, Fridman M, Korst L. Trends and patterns of vaginal birth after cesarean availability in the United States. Semin Perinatol 2010;34:23743.
  • 46
    Rageth JC, Juzi C, Grossenbacher H. Delivery after previous cesarean: a risk evaluation. Swiss Working Group of Obstetric and Gynecologic Institutions. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:3327.
  • 47
    Meehan F. Trial of scar with induction/oxytocin in delivery after a previous section. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1988;15:11723.
  • 48
    Beckett VA, Regan L. Vaginal birth after cesarean: the European experience. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2001;44:594603.
  • 49
    Udayasankar V, Padmagirison R, Majoko F. National survey of obstetricians in Wales regarding induction of labour in women with a previous caesarean section. J Obstet Gynaecol 2008;28:4850.
  • 50
    Kwee A, Bots ML, Visser GH, Bruinse HW. Obstetric management and outcome of pregnancy in women with a history of caesarean section in the Netherlands. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2007;132:1716.
  • 51
    Zwart JJ, Richters JM, Ory F, de Vries JI, Bloemenkamp KW, van Roosmalen J. Uterine rupture in The Netherlands: a nationwide population-based cohort study. BJOG 2009;116:106978. discussion 78–80.
  • 52
    Ridley RT, Davis PA, Bright JH, Sinclair D. What influences a woman to choose vaginal birth after cesarean? J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2002;31:66572.
  • 53
    Fenwick J, Gamble J, Hauck Y. Believing in birth – choosing VBAC: the childbirth expectations of a self-selected cohort of Australian women. J Clin Nurs 2007;16:156170.
  • 54
    Lundgren I, Begley C, Gross MM, Bondas T. ‘Groping through the fog’: a metasynthesis of women's experiences on VBAC (Vaginal birth after Caesarean section). BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012;12:85.
  • 55
    Pang MW, Law LW, Leung TY, Lai PY, La TK. Sociodemographic factors and pregnancy events associated with women who declined vaginal birth after cesarean section. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2009;143:248.
  • 56
    Dunsmoor-Su R, Sammel M, Stevens E, Peipert JL, Macones G. Impact of sociodemographic and hospital factors on attempts at vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:135865.
  • 57
    Smith GC, Pell JP, Pasupathy D, Dobbie R. Factors predisposing to perinatal death related to uterine rupture during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2004;329:375.
  • 58
    Fitzpatrick K, Kurinczuk J, Alfirevic Z, Spark P, Brocklehurst P. Uterine rupture by intended mode of delivery in the UK: a national case–control study. PLoS Med 2012;9:e1001184.
  • 59
    Holt VL, Mueller BA. Attempt and success rates for vaginal birth after caesarean section in relation to complications of the previous pregnancy. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1997;11(Suppl. 1):6372.
  • 60
    Ollendorff D, Goldberg JM, Min D, Socol M. Vaginal birth after caesarean section for arrest of labour: is success determined by maximum cervical dilatation during the prior labour? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159:6369.
  • 61
    Landon MB, Leindecker S, Spong CY, Hauth JC, Bloom S, Varner MW, et al. The MFMU Cesarean Registry: factors affecting the success of trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:101623.
  • 62
    Costantine MM, Fox K, Byers BD, Mateus J, Ghulmiyyah LM, Blackwell S, et al. Validation of the prediction model for success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:102933.
  • 63
    Yokoi A, Ishikawa K, Miyazaki K, Yoshida K, Furuhashi M, Tamakoshi K. Validation of the prediction model for success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in Japanese women. Int J Med Sci 2012;9:48891.
  • 64
    Chaillet N, Bujold E, Dube E, Grobman WA. Validation of a prediction model for vaginal birth after caesarean. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013;35:11924.
  • 65
    Costantine MM, Fox KA, Pacheco LD, Mateus J, Hankins GD, Grobman WA, et al. Does information available at delivery improve the accuracy of predicting vaginal birth after cesarean? Validation of the published models in an independent patient cohort. Am J Perinatol 2011;28:2938.