• 1
    Gibbons L, Belizán LM, Lauer JA, Betrán AP, Merialdi M, lthabe F. The Global Numbers and Costs of Additionally Needed and Unnecessary Caesarean Sections Performed per Year: Overuse as a Barrier to Universal Coverage. No 30. 2010. World Health Report Background Paper.
  • 2
    Diaz SD, Jones JE, Seryakov M, Mann WJ. Uterine rupture and dehiscence: ten-year review and case-control study. South Med J 2002;95:4315.
  • 3
    Clark SL, Koonings PP, Phelan JP. Placenta previa/accreta and prior cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol 1985;66:8992.
  • 4
    Naji O, Daemen A, Smith A, Abdallah Y, Saso S, Stalder C, et al. Changes in cesarean section scar dimensions during pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;41:55662.
  • 5
    Silver RM. Delivery after previous cesarean: long-term maternal outcomes. Semin Perinatol 2010;34:25866.
  • 6
    Bij de Vaate AJ, Brolmann HA, van der Voet LF, van der Slikke JW, Veersema S, Huirne JA. Ultrasound evaluation of the cesarean scar: relation between a niche and postmenstrual spotting. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;37:939.
  • 7
    Vikhareva Osser O, Jokubkiene L, Valentin L. Cesarean section scar defects: agreement between transvaginal sonographic findings with and without saline contrast enhancement. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010;35:7583.
  • 8
    Armstrong V, Hansen WF, Van Voorhis BJ, Syrop CH. Detection of cesarean scars by transvaginal ultrasound. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:615.
  • 9
    Regnard C, Nosbusch M, Fellemans C, Benali N, van RM, Barlow P, et al. Cesarean section scar evaluation by saline contrast sonohysterography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004;23:28992.
  • 10
    Menada Valenzano M, Lijoi D, Mistrangelo E, Costantini S, Ragni N. Vaginal ultrasonographic and hysterosonographic evaluation of the low transverse incision after caesarean section: correlation with gynaecological symptoms. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2006;61:21622.
  • 11
    Vikhareva Osser O, Jokubkiene L, Valentin L. High prevalence of defects in cesarean section scars at transvaginal ultrasound examination. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;34:907.
  • 12
    van der Voet LF, Bij de Vaate AJ, Veersema S, Brolmann HA, Huirne JA. Long term complications of caesarean section, the niche in the scar: a prospective cohort study on niche prevalence and relation with abnormal uterine bleeding. BJOG 2013;121:23644.
  • 13
    Monteagudo A, Carreno C, Timor-Tritsch IE. Saline infusion sonohysterography in nonpregnant women with previous cesarean delivery: the “niche” in the scar. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:110515.
  • 14
    Fabres C, Aviles G, De La Jara C, Escalona J, Munoz JF, Mackenna A, et al. The cesarean delivery scar pouch: clinical implications and diagnostic correlation between transvaginal sonography and hysteroscopy. J Ultrasound Med 2003;22:695700.
  • 15
    Naji O, Abdallah Y, Bij de Vaate AJ, Smith A, Pexsters A, Stalder C, et al. Standardized approach for imaging and measuring cesarean section scars using ultrasonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;39:2529.
  • 16
    Stewart KS, Evans TW. Recurrent bleeding from the lower segment scar–a late complication of Caesarean section. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1975;82:6826.
  • 17
    Thurmond AS, Harvey WJ, Smith SA. Cesarean section scar as a cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding: diagnosis by sonohysterography. J Ultrasound Med 1999;18:136.
  • 18
    Wang CB, Chiu WW, Lee CY, Sun YL, Lin YH, Tseng CJ. Cesarean scar defect: correlation between cesarean section number, defect size, clinical symptoms and uterine position. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;34:859.
  • 19
    Borges LM, Scapinelli A, de Baptista DD, Lippi UG, Coelho Lopes RG. Findings in patients with postmenstrual spotting with prior cesarean section. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2010;17:3614.
  • 20
    Uppal T, Lanzarone V, Mongelli M. Sonographically detected caesarean section scar defects and menstrual irregularity. J Obstet Gynaecol 2011;31:4136.
  • 21
    Bij de Vaate AJ, van der Voet LF, Naji O, Witmer M, Veersema S, Brölmann HA, et al. The prevalence, potential risk factors for development and symptoms related to the presence of uterine niches following cesarean section: a systematic review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; DOI: 10.1002/uog.13199. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 22
    Fabres C, Arriagada P, Fernandez C, Mackenna A, Zegers F, Fernandez E. Surgical treatment and follow-up of women with intermenstrual bleeding due to cesarean section scar defect. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2005;12:258.
  • 23
    Morris H. Surgical pathology of the lower uterine segment caesarean section scar: is the scar a source of clinical symptoms? Int J Gynecol Pathol 1995;14:1620.
  • 24
    Gubbini G, Casadio P, Marra E. Resectoscopic correction of the “isthmocele” in women with postmenstrual abnormal uterine bleeding and secondary infertility. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2008;15:1725.
  • 25
    Wild E, Gull S. Uterine diverticulum as a late complication of caesarean section. J Obstet Gynaecol 2003;23:88.
  • 26
    Erickson SS, Van Voorhis BJ. Intermenstrual bleeding secondary to cesarean scar diverticuli: report of three cases. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:8025.
  • 27
    Chang Y, Tsai EM, Long CY, Lee CL, Kay N. Resectoscopic treatment combined with sonohysterographic evaluation of women with postmenstrual bleeding as a result of previous cesarean delivery scar defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;200:3704.
  • 28
    Wang CJ, Huang HJ, Chao A, Lin YP, Pan YJ, Horng SG. Challenges in the transvaginal management of abnormal uterine bleeding secondary to cesarean section scar defect. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;154:21822.
  • 29
    Gubbini G, Centini G, Nascetti D, Marra E, Moncini I, Bruni L, et al. Surgical hysteroscopic treatment of cesarean-induced isthmocele in restoring fertility: prospective study. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2011;18:2347.
  • 30
    Donnez O, Jadoul P, Squifflet J, Donnez J. Laparoscopic repair of wide and deep uterine scar dehiscence after cesarean section. Fertil Steril 2008;89:97480.
  • 31
    Klemm P, Koehler C, Mangler M, Schneider U, Schneider A. Laparoscopic and vaginal repair of uterine scar dehiscence following cesarean section as detected by ultrasound. J Perinat Med 2005;33:32431.
  • 32
    Kostov P, Huber AW, Rai L, Mueller MD. Uterine scar dehiscence repair in rendez-vous technique. Gynaecol Surg 2009;6:S65.
  • 33
    Yalcinkaya TM, Akar ME, Kammire LD, Johnston-MacAnanny EB, Mertz HL. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic repair of symptomatic cesarean scar defect: a report of two cases. J Reprod Med 2011;56:26570.
  • 34
    Bradshaw AD, Advincula AP. Robot-assisted repair of cesarean scar defect. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2010;17:S11.
  • 35
    La Rosa MF, McCarthy S, Richter C, Azodi M. Robotic repair of uterine dehiscence. JSLS 2013;17:15660.
  • 36
    Khoshnow Q, Pardey J, Uppal T. Transvaginal repair of caesarean scar dehiscence. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2010;50:945.
  • 37
    Luo L, Niu G, Wang Q, Xie HZ, Yao SZ. Vaginal repair of cesarean section scar diverticula. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2012;19:4548.
  • 38
    Tahara M, Shimizu T, Shimoura H. Preliminary report of treatment with oral contraceptive pills for intermenstrual vaginal bleeding secondary to a cesarean section scar. Fertil Steril 2006;86:4779.
  • 39
    Stroup DF, Berlin J, Morton SC, Olkin I, Wiliamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology a proposal for reporting. JAMA 2000;283:200812.
  • 40
    Vandenbroucke JP, Von EE, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Mulrow CD, Pocock SJ, et al. [Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration]. Gac Sanit 2009;23:158.
  • 41
    Marotta ML, Donnez J, Squifflet J, Jadoul P, Darii N, Donnez O. Laparoscopic repair of post-Cesarean section uterine scar defects diagnosed in nonpregnant women. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2013; 20:38691.
  • 42
    Florio P, Gubbini G, Marra E, Dores D, Nascetti D, Bruni L, et al. A retrospective case-control study comparing hysteroscopic resection versus hormonal modulation in treating menstrual disorders due to isthmocele. Gynecol Endocrinol 2011;27:4348.
  • 43
    Feng YL, Li MX, Liang XQ, Li XM. Hysteroscopic treatment of postcesarean scar defect. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2012;19:498502.
  • 44
    Fernandez E, Fernandez C, Fabres C, Alam V. Hysteroscopic correction of cesarean section scars in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1996;3(Suppl. 4):S13.
  • 45
    Marra E, Casadio P, Armilotta F, De Angelis D, Berra M, Rizzo MA, et al. Resectoscopic treatment of “Isthmocele”: “Isthmoplasty”. Gynaecol Surg 2009;6:S1089.
  • 46
    Egger M, Schneider M, Smith GD. Meta-analysis Spurious precision? Meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 1998;316:140.
  • 47
    Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315:629.
  • 48
    Florio P, Filippeschi M, Moncini I, Marra E, Franchini M, Gubbini G. Hysteroscopic treatment of the cesarean-induced isthmocele in restoring infertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2012;24:1806.
  • 49
    Demers S, Roberghe S, Bujold E. Laparoscopic repair of post-cesarean uterine scar defect [letter]. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2013;20:38691.
  • 50
    Gupta J, Kai J, Middleton L, Pattison H, Gray R, Daniels J. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system versus medical therapy for menorrhagia. N Engl J Med 2013;368:12837.