• Caesarean hysterectomy;
  • caesarean section;
  • colour Doppler ultrasound;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • placenta accreta;
  • placenta increta;
  • placenta percreta;
  • placenta;
  • scar pregnancy;
  • three-dimensional colour Doppler ultrasound;
  • ultrasound

The incidence of placental attachment disorders continues to increase with rising caesarean section rates. Antenatal diagnosis helps in the planning of location, timing and staffing of delivery. In at-risk women grey-scale ultrasound is quite sensitive, although colour ultrasound is the most predictive. Magnetic resonance imaging can add information in some limited instances. Patients who have had a previous caesarean section could benefit from early (before 10 weeks) visualisation of the implantation site. Current data refer only to placentas implanted in the lower anterior uterine segment, usually over a caesarean section scar.