Differences in risk factors for incident and recurrent small-for-gestational-age birthweight: a hospital-based cohort study
Article first published online: 7 APR 2014
Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Volume 121, Issue 9, pages 1080–1089, August 2014
How to Cite
Differences in risk factors for incident and recurrent small-for-gestational-age birthweight: a hospital-based cohort study. BJOG 2014;121:1080–1089., , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 22 JUL 2014
- Article first published online: 7 APR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 NOV 2013
- Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Grant Numbers: HHSN275200800002I, HHSN27500004
- Fetal growth restriction;
Examine whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) risk factors differed by prior SGA birth.
Hospital-based cohort study.
Electronic medical record data from 25 241 women who were nulliparous at study entry with ≥2 subsequent consecutive singleton deliveries (2002–2010).
Estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between second pregnancy characteristics and SGA risk. Tested for risk factor differences between recurrence and incidence (Pdifference).
Main outcome measures
Second pregnancy incident (n = 1067) and recurrent SGA (n = 484) determined using a population-based reference.
SGA complicated 20.3 and 4.5% of deliveries to women with and without a prior SGA birth, respectively. Young maternal age (Pdifference = 0.01) and pregnancy hypertensive diseases (Pdifference = 0.03) were associated with incident but not recurrent SGA. Significant risk factors for incidence and recurrence were smoking (incident RR = 1.64 [95% CI 1.22–2.19]; recurrent RR = 1.59 [95% CI 1.17–2.17]), short stature (incident RR = 1.34 [95% CI 1.16–1.54]; recurrent RR = 1.54 [95% CI 1.31–1.82]), prepregnancy underweight (incident RR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.07–1.64]; recurrent RR = 1.30 [95% CI 1.03–1.64]), and inadequate weight gain (incident RR = 1.41 [95% CI 1.22–1.64]; recurrent RR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.10–1.60]). Race-ethnicity, marital or insurance status, alcohol, diabetes, asthma, thyroid disease, depression, or interpregnancy interval were not associated with incidence or recurrence.
There was considerable overlap in the risk factors for SGA recurrence and incidence. Recurrence and incidence risk factors included smoking, short stature, underweight, and inadequate weight gain. Maternal age and hypertensive diseases increased the risk for incidence only. Regardless of the SGA definition, some potentially modifiable risk factors for recurrence were identified.