• HIV ;
  • Latin America;
  • pregnancy;
  • pregnancy outcomes;
  • prematurity


To examine maternal characteristics associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women infected with HIV.


Prospective cohort study.


Multiple sites in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Women infected with HIV enrolled in the Perinatal (2002–2007) and the Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC; 2008–2012) studies of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI).


Frequencies of adverse pregnancy outcomes assessed among pregnancies. Risk factors investigated by logistic regression analysis.

Main outcome measures

Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery (PT), low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth (SB), and neonatal death.


Among 1512 women, 1.9% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.3–2.7) of singleton pregnancies resulted in a stillbirth and 32.9% (95% CI 30.6–35.4) had at least one adverse pregnancy outcome. Of 1483 singleton live births, 19.8% (95% CI 17.8–21.9) were PT, 14.2% (95% CI 12.5–16.1) were LBW, 12.6% (95% CI 10.9–14.4) were SGA, and 0.4% (95% CI 0.2–0.9) of infants died within 28 days of birth. Multivariable logistic regression modelling indicated that the following risk factors increased the probability of having one or more adverse pregnancy outcomes: lower maternal body mass index at delivery (odds ratio, OR, 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.5), hospitalisation during pregnancy (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0–5.3), hypertension during pregnancy (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5–4.8), antiretroviral use at conception (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0–1.9), and tobacco use during pregnancy (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3–2.2). The results of fitting multivariable logistic regression models for PT, LBW, SGA, and SB are also reported.


Women infected with HIV had a relatively high occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and some maternal risk factors were associated with these adverse pregnancy outcomes. Interventions targeting modifiable risk factors should be evaluated further.