• 1
    Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL. Textbook of Surgery. The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice, 17th edn. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2004.
  • 2
    Brunicardi FC (editor). Schwartz's Principles of Surgery, 8th edn. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.
  • 3
    Miedema BW, Johnson JO. Methods for decreasing postoperative gut dysmotility. Lancet Oncol 2003;4:365.
  • 4
    Wilson JP. Postoperative motility of the large intestine in man. Gut 1975;16:689.
  • 5
    Bederman SS, Betsy M, Winiarsky R, Seldes RM, Sharrock NE, Sculco TP. Postoperative ileus in the lower extremity arthroplasty patient. J Arthroplasty 2001;16:1066.
  • 6
    Fitzgerald JE, Ahmed I. Systematic review and meta-analysis of chewing gum therapy in the reduction of postoperative paralytic ileus following gastrointestinal surgery. World J Surg 2009;33:255766.
  • 7
    LaRosa J, Saywell RM Jr, Zollinger TW, Oser TL, Erner BK, McClain E. The incidence of adynamic ileus in postcesarean patients. Patient-controlled analgesia versus intramuscular analgesia. J Reprod Med 1993;38:293300.
  • 8
    Whitehead WE, Bradley CS, Brown MB, Brubaker L, Gutman RE, Varner RE, et al. Gastrointestinal complications following abdominal sacrocolpopexy for advanced pelvic organ prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197:78.
  • 9
    Wolff BG, Viscusi ER, Delaney CP, Du W, Techner L. Patterns of gastrointestinal recovery after bowel resection and total abdominal hysterectomy: pooled results from the placebo arms of alvimopan phase III North American clinical trials. J Am Coll Surg 2007;205:4351.
  • 10
    Pearl ML, Valea FA, Fischer M, Mahler L, Chalas E. A randomized controlled trial of early postoperative feeding in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing intra-abdominal surgery. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:947.
  • 11
    Cutillo G, Maneschi F, Franchi M, Giannice R, Scambia G, Benedetti-Panici P. Early feeding compared with nasogastric decompression after major oncologic gynecologic surgery: a randomized study. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:415.
  • 12
    Kornblith AB, Huang HQ, Walker JL, Spirtos NM, Rotmensch J, Cella D. Quality of life of patients with endometrial cancer undergoing laparoscopic international federation of gynecology and obstetrics staging compared with laparotomy: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:533742.
  • 13
    Wind J, Hofland J, Preckel B, Hollmann MW, Bossuyt PM, Gouma DJ, et al. Perioperative strategy in colonic surgery, laparoscopy and/or fast track multimodal management versus standard care (LAFA trial). BMC Surg 2006;6:16.
  • 14
    Jakobsen DH, Sonne E, Andreasen J, Kehlet H. Convalescence after colonic surgery with fast-track vs conventional care. Colorectal Dis 2006;8:6837.
  • 15
    Basse L, Jakobsen DH, Bardram L, Billesbølle P, Lund C, Mogensen T, et al. Functional recovery after open versus laparoscopic colonic resection. A randomized, blinded study. Ann Surg 2005;241:41623.
  • 16
    Mattei P, Rombeau JL. Review of the pathophysiology and management of postoperative ileus. World J Surg 2006;30:138291.
  • 17
    Chen JH, Hsieh CB, Chao PC, Liu HD, Chen CJ, Liu YC, et al. Effect of water-soluble contrast in colorectal surgery: a prospective randomized trial. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:28025.
  • 18
    Adanikin AI, Orji EO, Fasubaa OB, Onwudiegwu U, Ijarotimi OA, Olaniyan O. The effect of post-cesarean rectal misoprostol on intestinal motility. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012;119:15962.
  • 19
    Harms BA, Heise CP. Pharmacologic management of post operative ileus: the next chapter in GI surgery. Ann Surg 2007;245:3645.
  • 20
    Fanning J, Valea FA. Perioperative bowel management for gynecologic surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;205:30914.
  • 21
    Noble EJ, Harris R, Hosie KB, Thomas S, Lewis SJ. Gum chewing reduces postoperative ileus? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Surg 2009;7:1005.
  • 22
    Purkayastha S, Tilney HS, Darzi AW, Tekkis PP. Meta-analysis of randomized studies evaluating chewing gum to enhance postoperative recovery following colectomy. Arch Surg 2008;143:78893.
  • 23
    Guyton A, Hall J. Textbook of Medical Physiology, 10th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2000.
  • 24
    Review Manager (RevMan) [Computer program]. Version 5.0. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; 2008.
  • 25
    Higgins JPT, Green S (eds). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.0 (updated February 2008). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. []. Accessed 21 March 2013.
  • 26
    Higgins JP. Thompson SG Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 2002;21:153958.
  • 27
    Egger M, Smith GD, Altman DG. Systematic Reviews in Healthcare. London: BMJ Publishing; 2006.
  • 28
    GRADEpro. [Computer program]. Version 3.2 for Windows. Jan Brozek, Andrew Oxman, Holger Schünemann 2008. []. Accessed 21 March 2013.
  • 29
    Abd-El-Maeboud KH, Ibrahim MI, Shalaby DA, Fikry MF. Gum chewing stimulates early return of bowel motility after caesarean section. BJOG 2009;116:13349.
  • 30
    Garshasbi A, Behboudi S. The effect of Gum chewing on postoperative ileus after cesarean section. Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) 42nd Annual Meeting. []. Accessed 21 March 2013.
  • 31
    Harma MI, Barut A, Arikan II, Harma M. Gum-chewing speeds return of first bowel sounds but not first defecation after cesarean section. Anatol J Obstet Gynecol 2009;1:13.
  • 32
    Jakkaew B, Charoenkwan K. Effects of gum chewing on recovery of bowel function following cesarean section: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2013;288:25560.
  • 33
    Kafali H, Duvan CI, Gözdemir E, Simavli S, Onaran Y, Keskin E. Influence of gum chewing on postoperative bowel activity after cesarean section. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2010;69:847.
  • 34
    Ledari FM, Barat S, Delavar MA. Chewing gums has stimulatory effects on bowel function in patients undergoing cesarean section: a randomized controlled trial. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2012;12:2658.
  • 35
    Shang H, Yang Y, Tong X, Zhang L, Fang A, Hong L. Gum chewing slightly enhances early recovery from postoperative ileus after cesarean section: results of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Perinatol 2010;27:38791.
  • 36
    Hocevar BJ, Robinson B, Gray M. Does chewing gum shorten the duration of postoperative ileus in patients undergoing abdominal surgery and creation of a stoma? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2010;37:1406.
  • 37
    Yin Z, Sun J, Liu T, Zhu Y, Peng S, Wang J. Gum chewing: another simple potential method for more rapid improvement of postoperative gastrointestinal function. Digestion 2013;87:6774.
  • 38
    Vásquez W, Hernández AV, Garcia-Sabrido JL. Is gum chewing useful for ileus after elective colorectal surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Gastrointest Surg 2009;13:64956.
  • 39
    de Castro SM, van den Esschert JW, van Heek NT, Dalhuisen S, Koelemay MJ, Busch OR, et al. A systematic review of the efficacy of gum chewing for the amelioration of postoperative ileus. Dig Surg 2008;25:3945.
  • 40
    Chan MK, Law WL. Use of chewing gum in reducing postoperative ileus after elective colorectal resection: a systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum 2007;50:214957.
  • 41
    Leier H. Does gum chewing help prevent impaired gastric motility in the postoperative period? J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2007;19:1336.
  • 42
    Li S, Liu Y, Peng Q, Xie L, Wang J, Qin X. Chewing gum reduces postoperative ileus following abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:112232.