Linked article: This article is commented on by Simhan HN. To view this mini commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12970.
First trimester coffee and tea intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a study within a national birth cohort
Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014
© 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
How to Cite
First trimester coffee and tea intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a study within a national birth cohort. BJOG 2014; DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12930., , , , .
- Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 25 APR 2014
- Danish National Research Foundation
- Pharmacy Foundation
- Egmont Foundation
- March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. Grant Number: Augustinus Foundation
- Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- gestational diabetes;
Coffee and tea consumption is associated with a decreased type 2 diabetes risk in non-pregnant adults. We examined the relation between first trimester coffee and tea consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk.
Population-based cohort study.
Non-diabetic women with singleton pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 71 239).
Estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between first trimester coffee and tea or estimated total caffeine and GDM.
Main outcome measures
GDM ascertained from the National Hospital Discharge Register or maternal interview.
Coffee or tea intake was reported in 81.2% (n = 57 882) and 1.3% (n = 912) of pregnancies were complicated by GDM. Among non-consumers, 1.5% of pregnancies were complicated by GDM. Among coffee drinkers, GDM was highest among women who drank ≥8 cups/day (1.8%) with no significant difference across intake levels (P = 0.10). Among tea drinkers, there was no difference in GDM across intake levels (1.2%; P = 0.98). After adjustment for age, socio-occupational status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, and cola, there was suggestion of a protective, but non-significant association with increasing coffee (RR ≥8 versus 0 cups/day = 0.89 [95%CI 0.64–1.25]) and tea (RR ≥8 versus 0 cups/day = 0.77 [95%CI 0.55–1.08]). Results were similar by smoking status, except a non-significant 1.45-fold increased risk with ≥8 coffee cups/day for non-smokers. There was a non-significant reduced GDM risk with increasing total caffeine.
Our results suggest that moderate first trimester coffee and tea intake were not associated with GDM increased risk and possibly may have a protective effect.