Intake of dairy products and calcium and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: a cross-sectional study

Authors


Abstract

Objective

To examine the relationship between the intake of dairy products and calcium and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Setting

Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study (KOMCHS).

Sample

A cohort of 1745 pregnant Japanese women.

Methods

Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale denoted depressive symptoms. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, and body mass index. In our analyses regarding dairy products in general, adjustment was also made for fish intake; in our analysis regarding calcium, adjustment was also made for the intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D.

Main outcome measures

Depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

Results

Higher intake levels of yogurt and calcium were independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles were 0.69 (95% CI 0.48–0.99, P for trend = 0.03) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40–0.88, P for trend = 0.006), respectively. No relationships were observed between the intake of all dairy products, milk, or cheese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

Conclusions

The current results suggest that a higher intake of yogurt and calcium may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

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