Vulvovaginal Candida albicans infections: pathogenesis, immunity and vaccine prospects


  • A Cassone

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Experimental Medicine, Center of Functional Genomics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    • Correspondence: Prof. Antonio Cassone, Polo della genomica, Genetica e biologia, Università di Perugia, Via Gambuli 1, 06100 Perugia, Italy. Email

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Although a number of fungal species belonging to the genus Candida can cause acute vulvovaginal infection (VVC), Candida albicans is by far the most prevalent etiological agent, particularly for the most severe chronic condition known as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). This review focuses on recent advances in pathogenic mechanisms and host immune responses to C. albicans and on the utilisation of this information in the development of a vaccine to prevent and/or treat vaginal candidiasis. Currently, two vaccines with main or sole RVVC as clinical indication have completed a phase 1 clinical trial, and one of them has entered a phase 2 trial.