• Pain care quality;
  • measure;
  • validity;
  • reliability;
  • nursing;
  • interdisciplinary


To examine the reliability and validity and to decrease the battery of items in the Pain Care Quality (PainCQ©) Surveys.

Data Sources/Study Setting

Patient-reported data were collected prospectively from 337 hospitalized adult patients with pain on medical/surgical oncology units in four hospitals in three states.

Study Design

This methodological study used a cross-sectional survey design. Each consenting patient completed two PainCQ© Surveys, the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and demographic questions. Clinical data were extracted from the medical record.

Data Collection/Extraction Methods

All data were double entered into a Microsoft Access database, cleaned, and then extracted into SPSS, AMOS, and Mplus for analysis.

Principal Findings

Confirmatory factor analysis using Structural Equation Modeling supported the initial factor structure. Modification indices guided decisions that resulted in a superior, parsimonious model for the PainCQ-Interdisciplinary Care Survey (six items, two subscales) and the PainCQ-Nursing Care Survey (14 items, three subscales). Cronbach's alpha coefficients all exceeded .80.


Cumulative evidence supports the reliability and validity of the companion PainCQ© Surveys in hospitalized patients with pain in the oncology setting. The tools may be relevant in both clinical research and quality improvement. Future research is recommended in other populations, settings, and with more diverse groups.