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Surge Capacity: Analysis of Census Fluctuations to Estimate the Number of Intensive Care Unit Beds Needed

Authors

  • Kendiss Olafson M.D., F.R.C.P.C., M.P.H.,

    Corresponding author
    1. Section of Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
    • Address correspondence to Kendiss Olafson, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., M.P.H., Section of Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, GC201B – 820 Sherbrook Ave, Winnipeg, MB R3A 1R9; e-mail: kolafson@hsc.mb.ca.

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  • Clare Ramsey M.D., F.R.C.P.C., M.Sc.,

    1. Sections of Critical Care and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
    2. Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
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  • Marina Yogendran M.Sc.,

    1. Manitoba Center of Health Policy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
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  • Randall Fransoo M.Sc., Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
    2. Manitoba Center of Health Policy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
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  • Carla Chrusch M.D., F.R.C.P.C., M.Sc.,

    1. Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB
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  • Evelyn Forget MA, Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
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  • Allan Garland M.D., M.Sc.

    1. Sections of Critical Care and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
    2. Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
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Abstract

Objective

To compare methods of characterizing intensive care unit (ICU) bed use and estimate the number of beds needed.

Study Setting

Three geographic regions in the Canadian province of Manitoba.

Study Design

Retrospective analysis of population-based data from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2007.

Methods

We compared three methods to estimate ICU bed requirements. Method 1 analyzed yearly patient-days. Methods 2 and 3 analyzed day-to-day fluctuations in patient census; these differed by whether each hospital needed to independently fulfill its own demand or this resource was shared across hospitals.

Principal Findings

Three main findings were as follows: (1) estimates based on yearly average usage generally underestimated the number of beds needed compared to analysis of fluctuations in census, especially in the smaller regions where underestimation ranged 25–58 percent; (2) 4–29 percent fewer beds were needed if it was acceptable for demand to exceed supply 18 days/year, versus 4 days/year; and (3) 13–36 percent fewer beds were needed if hospitals within a region could effectively share ICU beds.

Conclusions

Compared to using yearly averages, analyzing day-to-day fluctuations in patient census gives a more accurate picture of ICU bed use. Failing to provide adequate “surge capacity” can lead to demand that frequently and severely exceeds supply.

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